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Plant science final
Terms in this set (58)
What is there a shortage of concerning the feeding of farm animals?
Freshly cut or still-growing green vegetation that is plowed into the soil to increase the organic matter and humus available to support crop growth.
bird eggs (bald eagles specifically) became thin and not viable
Why was DDT banned?
What term was coined by US agency for International Development (1968)?
Green Revolution was a movement to increase yields by using:
- new crop varieties
Conventional varieties before green revolution had increased ______ growth resulting in lodging (grows up & falls over before it can be harvested)
- these crops had long growing season
- low yield
Semi-dwarf rice and wheat
What were the new high-yield varieties of the green revolution that responded well to fertilizers rich in nitrogen, matured earlier, reduced lodging, and increased grain yields?
when the plant grows up & falls over before it can be harvested
what minimized drought failures during Green Revolution?
Through the use of what could the Green Revolution get 2 crops of wheat or 3 crops of rice per season?
__- fold increase in cereal grain during Green Revolution in many countries
Low income food deficit countries, Sub-Saharan Africa
LIFDC stands for? What country lags behind the most in the Green Revolution?
Getting into hands of farmers
Cost of production
Distribution Problems (due to poor roads/political disputes)
Post-Green Revolution had problems. What were these?
Food production increased ?% in 30 years thanks to Green Revolution
Green Revolution's success story ultimately led to _________ incomes and standards of living
Concentrate on more crops
Improve yields in marginal lands
Rediscover forgotten foods
Increase yields with low inputs
Empower women farmers
What changes arose from the 1st Green Evolution to the 2nd Green Evolution?
Women grow what percent of all food in developing countries?
Potatoes and Quinoa
What 2 kinds of roots and tubers were lost before 2nd green revolution?
With the rise in technology, women in developing countries found it critical to obtain _____ to provide their crops with the latest technology (cell phones) that the Green Revolution required. The increase in women working for cash caused wages to plummet. Women found themselves struggling between their duties at their homes and their need for cash to grow their crops. Nobel peace prize awarded for giving these women microloans
Women farmers only have access to ?? percent or less of the African services dealing with agriculture. It has been stated that women in Sub-Saharan Africa could increase their yields up to ?? percent if they had the same access to governmental aide as the men in the country
blueberries and concord grapes
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberries) are one of 3 fruits native to North America, the other two are??
Cranberry plant is a perrenial, trailing vine with runners up to 6 ft long. Fruit are born on lateral branches called _________
What is used to control temps (enjoys cool) and make cranberry harvest easier?
Largest producing states of cranberries:
- __________ produces 57% of the 7.5 million barrels of cranberries produced.
- __________ produces about 30% of the crop.
A barrel of cranberries is about __ liters or 2.71 bushels in size.
A machine removes berries from vines, they float, and they are herded to one side of bog
How are cranberries harvested?
Gypsum (CaSO4 * 2H2O)
Cranberries need calcium with low pH.
What would be applied to provide calcium but not cause pH to rise?
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosom)
What is the 4th largest food crop behind rice, wheat and maize?
China & India
What country now leads world in Potato production?
1/3 of the worlds potatoes are harvested
in what two countries?
Was thought that potatoes came from north and south america with wild potatoes in the southwestern US going all the way down to ____. They like sandy soils.
Potatoes contain __________ (in green part of plant) an alcylloid which are toxic to humans.
Like tomatoes, potatoes are _____ and a member of the __________ family.
The vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato plant contain ______ and are not fit for human consumption
1. Gold Skin
2. Copper Skin, Yams
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)
- Two types of dicot sweet potatoes:
1. _____ ____ with creamy white flesh
2. _______ _____ with orange flesh - marketed as _____
Largest production states are NC, CA, MS, LA
Morning glory family
What family are sweet potatoes in? they are not related to potatoes.
North Carolina, California, Mississippi, Louisiana
What are the top 4 producers of sweet potatoes?
grasses and lilies
Yams (Dioscorea batatas) are starchy, hairy monocots that are related to _______ and ______
The term sweet potato is only about ____ years old
Spanish introduced sweet potatoes to Europe by feeding ______ ___ a sweet potato pie
Green Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris):
Over 130 cultivars such as...
- Blue Lake (most commercially successful)
- Kentucky Wonder
Campbell's Soup released recipe for green bean
casserole in ____?
Largest producer of green beans is?
Onions are from the genus Allium
which also includes chives, leeks and garlic. What is the scientific name of the cultivated onion?
What plant is a bulb that is considered a vegetable?
Plant is a biennial or perennial but managed
as an annual.
China and India
What two countries lead the world in Onion production with about 8 times the U.S. production of 3 million tonnes?
Onions are grown from seeds or sets.
- ____ grown previous summer by planting seeds thickly in poor soil.
- Bulbing of onions is day‐length dependent..
- _____'_ is leading manufacturer of fried onions with 85% of the market.
_______ loam soils generally low in sulfur (S) are preferred in Onions. Clay soils high in S produce pungent onions.
Pecans come from tree (______ _________)
- "Pecan" is from an Algonquian word variously referring to pecans, walnuts and hickory nuts, or more broadly to any nut requiring a stone to crack.
- A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a _____, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk.
US and Mexico
Georgia, New Mexico, Texas
What two countries produce 93% of world total of pecans.?
What are the leading states of pecan production?
Cultivated varieties of pecans began in ______ - a fairly
Thomas Jefferson grew "Illinois nuts" at Monticello and gave some to George Washington who grew them at Mt. Vernon.
??? (Cucurbita pepo)
- is a a cultivar of the squash plant.
- __. _______ is a particularly large cultivar of squash plants.
95% of canned pumpkin grown in what state?
USA, Canada, Mexican, China, and India
IL, IN, OH, PA, and CA
Pumpkins are native to North America
- What countries are leading producers?
- What states are leading producers?
______ _____ (Saccharum officinarum) is a perennial grass.
- Worldwide ~ 70% of refined sugar comes from sugar cane.
- In USA roughly ___% of refined sugar comes from sugar cane.
In USA ~ ___% of refined sugar comes from sugar beets.
Beta vulgaris ssp vulgaris:
- cultivar group Altissima Group
- Native to _____-Polish
- GMO sugar beets
North Dakota and Minnesota
Largest production area of sugar cane in US is Red
River Valley of what two states?
- ______ flour (Triticum aestivum). Hexaploid.
- ____ wheats are higher in protein and gluten.
- ____ flour -soft wheats -lower protein
- _____ flour (Triticum turgidum - subspecies durum). Tetraploid.
what stage of corn has dents in kernels which indicates corn is almost mature?
abscission layer that forms between kernel and cob which indicated physiological maturity
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