Calories, carbohydrates, cholesterol, fats, and the 8 essential nutrients: Proteins, Iron, Calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Thiamin, Riboflavin, and Niacin.
Describe the purpose that a serving size serves.
The amount that nutrients hold up
What is the importance of the %Daily Values?
Shows that the food will provide you with substantial portion of recommended amount of nutrient for the day.
Describe the purpose of Food Labels.
They are nutrient listings reflecting current health concerns
What are Functional Foods? Give an example of one.
Functional food or food ingredients that offer more nutrients than traditional nutrients they contain. A tomato is an example of a functional food.
-modified food to help prevent deficiencies -ingredients added for treating and preventing symptoms or diseases (i.e. Calcium added to orange juice)
-enhances chemical process in body -rxn where the result is greater that sum of 2 parts
4 main studied Antioxidants
Vitamin C & E, Beta carotin, and Selenium (mineral)
-Found primarily in fruits and vegetables -prevents chronic disease. -offers protection against free radicals. --absorbs them before they can do damage or interrupts them if damage has begun.
The oxygen type that remains unstable form -they have normal proton nucleus w/ an unpaired electron. -finds o/ unpaired electrons and turns o/ molecule into another free radical. *Purpose: to damage proteins and lipids ( cell membranes and DNA)
-high power 2 block 4mation of cancer tumor. They have ability to block, slow down, and reverse process
A type of phytochemical -i.e. tomatoes, broccoli, Red grapes, green tea, blueberries, and Kale
Describe Glucose and Fatty Acids.
Glucose-come from high-carb foods. Stored as glycogen in the muscle and liver. Fatty Acid-breakdown fats.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy is transmitted into this before it reaches the cells.
Explain the ATP-CP system of how ATP is formed.
Creatine Phosphate and ATP are stored in the body. They are used in activities such as sprinting, long jumping,etc... -anaerobic -provides energy for a/b 1-2 sec -CP re synthesizes ATP during brief "all-out" efforts.
Explain the Anaeorbic/lactic acid system of ATP production.
- 10-180 sec activity, ATP and replenished from breakdown of glucose through series of chemical rxn. not needing oxygen.
Produced during anaerobic ATP production. -makes anaerobic ATP production last only 3 mins, because of its accumulation-which causes muscular fatigue. -removed during recovery period.
Aerobic system of ATP production
Production of energy during slow-sustained exercise, aerobic metabolism. -Glucose, fatty acids, and oxygen are required -lactic acid accumulation is minimal
-RDProtein= .8g/kg(Sedentary ppo) and 1.5g/kg(X-tremely active ppo) -60% max work capacity (VO₂max)= body uses fatty acids -100% max work capacity/high intensity exercise= glucose
-body can only store btw 1,500 to 2,000 cal inthe form of glycogen (75% stored in mus. tissue) -only affective if person is involved in 90 mins or mor of aerobic activity.
Glucose formation and Energy
Glycogen breaks down into glucose, and glucose is available for energy for muscles. -after exhaustive wk-out, loading up on carbs and proteins speed w/in 30 mins of exercise spds up glycogen storage. -during long-distance event, researcher rec. that athletes should consume 30-60 grams of carbs.
Low-sodium [ ] in blood -affects mainly long to ultra-long distance runners. -caused from loss of sweat -symptoms close to those of heat illness.
-organic cmpd in diet, mainly fr. fish and meat. -forms high energy compound CP in the body. [Creatine + Phosphate(inorganic)]-re-synthesizing ATP
Popular among those wanting to increasing muscle mass and improve athletic performance. -Supplementation- can result in a/b 20% increase in creatine stored in mus. -do not really benefit aerobic endurance athletes, since CP isn't used in aerobic ATP production.
Phases of Creatine Supplementation
Phase 1:Loading phase Phase 2: Maintenance phase
Amino Acid Supplementation
-Myth: protein supplements will increase muscle mass. -To some researchers, the body can not distinguish the diff btw amino acids from food and from supplements -CAN BE DANGEROUS: too much amino acid supplementation results in amino acids not absorbing amino acids. They therefore go thru body unabsorbed-resulting in toxicities and imbalances.
-"porous bones" -condition wch bones lack minerals req'd to keep them strong. -Wmn b/cm more susceptible to it after loss of estrogen (menopause). -This is b/c loss of estrogen causes increase in the breaking down of bone mass.
Statistics of Osteoporosis
-30% postmenpausal -22 million US wmn -16 million don't know it. ***leading cause of serious morbidity and functional loss among elderly. -1/2 women and 1/8 men
Hormone-Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Was once common, but now isn't because taking away estrogen cause increase in the risk for disease. -still most affective to treat acute menopausal symptoms.
Different med's used to prevent bone loss.
Micalcin-synthetic form of Calcitonin-help maintain body's balance of calcium. Alendronate (Fosamax)-nonhormonal drug, primarily for bone health, but dsnt promise benefits to the cardiovas. system. Risedronate (Actonel)-help increase bone mass and prevent bone loss Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)-prevent bone loss; 1-2% increase in bone density in a/b 4 yrs.
-key element of hemoglobin
-Protein-iron cmpd in red blood cells transporting oxygen in blood
condition-[ ] of hemoglobin in RBC's are lower than they should. -MEDICAL TRAUMA-pounding of the feet can contribute to it.
Iron stored in body. -active wmn's ferritin level should b checked regularly.