Biology Chapter 40
Terms in this set (77)
When the temperature of the outside air exceeds their internal body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will
B) constrict the blood vessels in their large ears to reduce transfer of external heat to the blood in their ears.
If thermoregulation is considered to be a secondary function of the large ears of jackrabbits, then the primary function of the ears is
C) to detect predators by using the large size and flexible positioning of the external ears to channel sound waves into the ear canal.
Which choice best describes a reasonable mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited over evolutionary time to specific functions?
C) Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant.
Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because
D) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution to the need to reduce drag while swimming
Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals directly exchange matter between cells and the environment include
B) an external respiratory surface, a small body size, and a two-cell-layered body.
The similar fusiform body shape of diverse animals, such as sharks, penguins, and aquatic mammals, has evolved because
C) this is the body shape that makes it possible for aquatic animals to swim rapidly.
The specialized structures of complex animals have evolved because
D) they permit adjustments to a wide range of environmental changes
All animals, whether large or small, have
E) each living cell in contact with an aqueous medium.
As body size increases in animals,
A) there is a decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio.
To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces lining the lungs and the intestines, evolutionary pressures have
A) increased the exchange surface area with folds and branches.
11) The specialized function shared by the cells that line the lungs and those that line the lumen of the gut is that both types of cells
B) provide abundant exchange surface.
Interstitial fluid is
D) the route for the exchange of materials between blood and body cells
Multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an internal pond because
B) an aqueous medium is needed for the cellular exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes
Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up
An exchange surface in direct contact with the external environment is found in the
Of the following choices, the epithelium with the shortest diffusion distance is
A) simple squamous epithelium
The absorptive epithelia in the gut are considered polarized because
E) the structures on the apical surface are different than those on the basal surface
Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with
D) epithelial tissue
An example of a connective tissue is the
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is composed of
A) several layers of boxlike cells
Coordinating body functions via chemical signals is accomplished by
B) endocrine system
Connective tissues typically have
D) relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix
The fibers responsible for the elastic resistance properties of tendons are
C) collagenous fibers
If you gently twist your earlobe, it does not remain distorted because it contains
B) elastin fibers
The nourishment, insulation, and support for neurons is the result of activity by the
E) glial cells
E) proteins for connective fibers
Breathing is accomplished via the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of
B) skeletal muscle
Blood is beset classified as connective tissue because
A) its cells are separated from each other by an extracellular matrix
Muscles are joined to bones by
Most types of communication between cells utilize
C) the release of chemical signals by the cell sending the message
With its abundance of collagenous fibers, cartilage is an example of
A) connective tissue
A matrix of connective tissue is apparent in
A) chondroitin sulfate of cartilage
In a typical nerve cell, the nucleus is found in the
A) cell body
All types of muscle tissue have
E) interactions between actin and myosin
All skeletal muscle fibers are both
C) striated and under voluntary control
Cardiac muscle cells are both
A) striated and interconnected by intercalated disks
The type of muscle tissue surrounding internal organs, other than the heart, is
E) smooth muscle
Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by
B) smooth muscle
The cells lining the air sacs in the lungs make up a
B) simple squamous epithelium
The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed
An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when
B. the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise
An example of effectors' roles in homeostatic responses is observable when
A. an increase in body temperature results from involuntary shivering
Positive feedback has occurred when
C) uterine contractions needed for the birthing process are expedited by the pressure of a moving baby in its mother's uterus.
Positive feedbacks differs from negative feedback in that
B) the positive feedback's effector responses are in the same direction as the initiating stimulus rather than opposite to it.
To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmouth moths
C. rapidly contract and relax these muscles to generate metabolic warmth
In a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherm
C. invests little energy in temperature regulation
Huans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the prices of
An example of an ectothermic organism that has few or no behavioral options when it comes to its ability to adjust its body temperature is a
B. sea star, a marine invertebrate
An overheated and sick dog in a hot environment will have an impaired thermoregulatory response when its
C. body temperature increases to match the environmental temperature
B. is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature
The panting responses that are observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by
An example of an organism that has only behavioral controls over its body temperature is the
A. green frog
Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians
A. are ectothermic organism with variable body temperatures
The temperature regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the
A female Burmese python incubating her eggs can warm them using
E. shivering thermogenesis
In mammals this response is known as fever, but it is known to raise body temperature in other bacterially infected animals, including lizards, fishes, and cockroaches
D. a change in the body's thermostat set point
Ingested foods inside the digestive tract of snakes are typically digested by
B. enymatic hydrolysis
Seasonal changes in snake activity are due to the fact that the snake
D. is more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction
Standard metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate are
E. both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state
For adult human females, the metabolic costs of pregnancy and lactation are
C. 5-8% more than when she was nonpregnant
Among these choices, the least reliable indicator of an animals metabolic rate is the amount of
E. water consumed in one day
During its months one hibernation in its burrow, the body temperature of a ground squirrel
C) varies between 5°C and 37°C, depending on the frequency of arousals from hibernation.
Winter acclimatization in cold zone mammals can include
C. hibernation for several weeks
Hibernation and estivation during seasons of environmental stress are both examples of
Panting by an overheated dog achieves cooling by
Catabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during
D. nonshivering thermogenesis
A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via
E. shivering thermogenesis
The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above show that
C) the warmer arterial blood transfers heat to the cooler venous blood.
Examine the figure above. Near a goose's abdomen, the countercurrent arrangement of the arterial and venous blood vessels causes
A) the temperature difference between the contents of the two sets of vessels to be minimized.
Imagine that you are a biologist who is attempting to get an accurate measure of an animal's basal metabolic rate. The best time to measure the metabolic rate is when the animal
A) is resting and has not eaten its first meal of the day.
The body tissue that consists largely of material located outside of cells is
B. connective tissue
Which of the following would increase the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?
C. wind blowing across the body surface
Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass.
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
B. less surface area per unit of volume
An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs
D. if it is growing and increasing its mass
You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?
C) You subject this reptile to various temperatures in the lab and find that its body temperature and metabolic rate change with the ambient temperature. You conclude that it is an ectotherm.
Which of the following animals uses the largest percentage of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
E. a desert bired