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Bio 314: Exam 3
Terms in this set (146)
In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by
deaminating amino acids
A byproduct of protein catabolism ________________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
Which organ system excretes nitrogenous waste?
The urinary system
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
The cardiovascular system
The ________ is not an organ of the urinary system.
The medial concavity of the kidney is called the ____________, which admits the renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and ureter.
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
The ___________ innervation of the kidneys reduces urine production, while the function of its _______________ innervation is unknown.
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as the _______________.
A renal pyramid voids urine into the __________.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the ___________________.
The average person has approximately ________ nephrons per kidney.
What is the correct trace of blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
Interlobular vein -> arcuate vein -> interlobar vein -> renal vein
What forms the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wraps around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
What is primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
In a healthy kidney, very little ______________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as __________.
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the _________ of one's nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
proximal convoluted tubules
What is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
Potassium, sodium chloride, urea, and water
What is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
Aldosterone acts on the _____________.
distal convoluted tubule
Hypocalcemia stimulates _________.
secretion of parathyroid hormone
What renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
What contributes to water conservation?
The collecting duct, the countercurrent multiplier, the countercurrent exchange system, the length of nephrons
What does not contribute to water conservation?
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ____________ and is based on fluid flowing in the _________ direction in two adjacent tubules.
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is to ______________.
supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
What induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
The pigment responsible for the color of urine is called _______________.
To meet the definition of polyuria, the minimum daily output of urine is ___________.
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of __________________.
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the _____________________.
countercurrent multiplier system
The _____________ is not a portion of the urethra.
internal urethral sphincter
True or false: the ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below.
True or false: albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus.
True or false: diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence.
True or false: ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct.
True or false: parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol.
True or false: the countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function.
True or false: the thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water.
True or false: glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure.
True or false: angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
True or false: cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells.
True or false: glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of afferent arterioles.
True or false: the fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.
True or false: the most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes
True or false: stimulation of sympathetic fibers of the renal plexus increases renal blood flow.
True or False: blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.
True or false: in a state of fluid balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
True or false: fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors
True or false: the kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration.
True or false: hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity
True or false: aldosterone promotes potassium excretion.
True or false: a buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
True or false: the three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory.
True or false: the kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system.
True or false: acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called _________________.
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
It promotes water conservation.
Water output is largely controlled by varying ___________.
What can prolonged exposure to cold weather lead to?
Increased respiratory water loss
In response to dehydration, osmoreceptors stimulate the secrete of __________________.
What is the principal cation of the ECF?
long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with ____________.
a drop in blood osmolarity
Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?
Distal convoluted tubule
What is the function of aldosterone?
It increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
Hypernatremia is a plasma __________________ concentration above normal.
What is caused by hypernatremia?
Water retention, edema, hypertension, interstitial fluid accumulation
What is not caused by hypernatremia?
A reduction in plasma volume.
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
What stimulates aldosterone secretion?
hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, high blood potassium concentration
What does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?
High blood sodium concentration
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of what?
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?
What is the complete chemical reaction for bicarbonate buffer system?
CO2 x H20H2CO3HCO3- x H+
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
What protein is the most important buffer in blood plasma?
What characterizes a weak base?
It binds a little H+ and has a weak effect on pH.
What buffer system accounts for 75% of all chemical buffering in the body fluids?
The protein buffer system
What describes an antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells?
It exchanges K+ for Na+
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
Chronic vomiting can lead to
Emphysema can lead to
Respiratory Acidosis because the lungs cannot remove enough carbon dioxide
True or false: the digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue.
True or False: the enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity, but its action depends on the central nervous system.
True or False: odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex.
True or False: enamel is found in the crown of a tooth, whereas dentin is part of both the crown and the root.
True or False: both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach.
True or False: gastric juice consists of entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.
True or False: absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomach.
True or False: the liver is the body's largest gland.
True or False: both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum.
True or False: the small intestine begins with the duodenum which is its longest segment.
True or False: the brush borders of intestinal absorptive cells contain numerous goblet cells.
True or False: most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase.
True or False: the large intestine absorbs water, fats, and salts.
True or False: the large intestine is longer than the small intestine.
The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called ________________.
The outermost layer of the digestive tract, which is composed of a thin layer of areolar tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is called the ________.
What is not an accessory organ of digestion?
what is the correct order of the tissue layers of the digestive tract?
Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by the ___________.
The _______________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow. Its neurons are found in the _____________.
enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
The surface of the tongue is covered with ______________ stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called _________________, where many taste buds can be found.
nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth.
What is the correct tooth anatomy from most superficial to the deepest?
Enamel, dentin, pulp
What is not normally found in saliva?
What is found in saliva?
mucus, lysozyme, amylase, lipase
The ___________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the __________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.
The oral phase of swallowing is under ___________ control and the pharyngoesophageal phase is ___________.
voluntary; controlled by autonomic reflexes
Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by
the lower esophageal sphincter
The _______ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum.
Necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption, __________ is/are secreted by __________ cells.
intrinsic factor; parietal
Several digestive enzymes are secreted as zymogens because __________.
they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
The enterogastric reflex serves to _____________.
inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
____________ is a hormone, whereas _________________ is an enzyme.
The __________________ phase is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions.
The _________ stores excess glucose and releases it into the blood when needed.
A hepatic triad consists of __________.
a bile ductule, a branch of the hepatic artery, and a branch of the hepatic portal vein
What bile components contributes to digestion?
The ____________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing ________________.
A sodium bicarbonate solution is secreted in response to a hormone called ___________________.
What nutrients are absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
Contact digestion takes place in/at the __________.
brush border of the small intestine.
Which of the following statements are true regarding the migrating motor complex?
it milks the chime toward the colon
The ___________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ____________ of the stomach.
intestinal crypts; gastric pits
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ________, whereas protein digestion begins in the ____________.
The enzyme(s) called ____________ break(s) down the substrate called ___________.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the sodium-glucose transport protein?
It transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into epithelial cells.
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the __________, and fatty acids are absorbed in the __________.
small intestine; small intestine
The muscle tone of the _____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called ______.
taeniae coli; haustra
Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.
Defecation is controlled by a _____________.
myenteric reflex and a spinal reflex
The enzyme that catalyzes the first step reaction in HCl production by gastric parietal cells is called __________.
Which of the following is true regarding the difference between the mucosa of the small and large intestines.
The small intestine has deeper intestinal crypts than the large intestine.
Which of the following has an abundance of lymphoid tissue in the mucosa and submucosa?
Which of the following is not a trigger for mass movements of the colon?
a. gastocolic reflex
b. duodenocolic reflex
c. chime filling the duodenum
d. chime filling the stomach
e. colorectal reflex
e. colorectal reflex
True or False: all chemical digestion is essentially just hydrolysis reactions
True or False: the stomach contains enteric pacemaker cells responsible for its regular churning motion and thus mechanical digestion.
Which of the following occurs in response to chemical irritants or sensory stimuli?
True or False: the small intestine uses segmentation to mix chime with digestive enzymes, increase its contact with the mucosa, and propel it forward through the digestive tract.
True or false: without properly functioning large intestine a person will have chronic diarrhea.
Which of the following is not involved in chemical digestion?
a. large intestine
b. small intestine
a. large intestine
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