12 terms

Exam 1: Chemical Science

-What are odorant and odor?
the chemical that provides the stimulation
the smell sensation that you experience
-What is anosmia?
lack of ability to smell
-What 2 cortical areas contribute to olfactory sensation? What does each contribute?
Olfactory cleft - a narrow space at the back of the nose into which air flows
Olfactory epithelium - a secretory mucosa in the nose whose primary function is to detect odorants in the air.
-Know each of these: OSN, olfactory cilia, glomeruli, Mitral cell.
-the main cell type in the olfactory epithelium.
-hairlike protrusions on the dendrites of OSN's
-spherical conglomerates containing the incoming axons of the OSNs
-the main projective output neurons in the olfactory bulbs
-What does the shape-pattern theory argue?
Argues that different scents as a function of odorant-shape activate different arrays of olfactory receptors in the olfactory epithelium(explains "cross-fiber" coding)
-What is a vomeronasal organ?
a chemical sensing organ that exists in some species that detects chemicals that cannot be processed by the olfactory epithelium
-What is a pheromone?
a chemical emitted by one member of a species that triggers a physiological or behavioral response
-What are tastant and taste?
-a molecule capable of evoking a gustatory sensation
-the sensory experience that occurs because of a tastant
-How are each of these detected: salt, sour, sweet, bitter?
-ability is to perceive is not static
-comes from acidic substances
-evoked by sugars
-quinine(bitter tasting substance)
-What sort of coding is used in the gustatory system?
Either labeled line coding or cross fiber coding
-What is a supertaster?
individual who and has a high density of fungiform papillae
-What does Berridge argue about subjective taste experience?
Argues that facial expressions are related to hedonic experience of taste