Terms in this set (50)
Basic unit of spoken language (a, k, th, etc.)
Humans are capable of 200 individual speech sounds (Infants can produce all 200).
Smallest unit that signals meaning
Words such as: dog, kiss, bagel
Prefixes, suffixes, and roots. (re-, -ing, -s, -ed, etc.)
Meaning relations (who did what to whom)
"The man bit the dog on the tail"
Grammatical rules that govern how words can be combined into sentences (the rules of language).
"The man the dog the tail bit on"
Unit of language that is larger than a sentence, such as: conversation, literary work, spoken narrative, text message, etc.
Language is an innate ability that just needs time and exposure to mature (Chomsky 1957).
Complex system of rules and principles represented in the mind of speakers. There is an innate structure to all language which is refined in different language environments.
Internal structure with meaning.
Phase structure of the current utterance.
Emphasis on syntax.
Development of Language
At 8 months old, an infant has the capacity to say one word utterances ("Mama"). When the child reaches 3 years old, they can begin to speak complex discourse ("My grandma gave me this Dolly, Cara. My Grandma is my Mommy's Mommy...").
By the age of 5, most children can produce sentences that resemble adult speech.
Children must discriminate between phonemes to perceive speech. Infants can perceive all speech-sound contrasts at least within the first few weeks of life (We know this due to Non nutritive sucking).
Infants suck on nipples to produce particular sounds ("ba ba ba" is a new stimulus/sound and the infant will start sucking). If the stimulus is presented frequently, habituation will occur and the infant's response rate will decrease.
Speech Perception in Infants
Infants from english-speaking homes can distinguish Hindi phonemes that do not exist in English (95% accuracy at 6-8 months, 70% accuracy at 8-10 months, and 20% accuracy at 10-12 months). This shows that infants are born with knowledge of all phonemes, but with more exposure to one language, they begin to ignore sounds that are irrelevant to it. This is how most people can distinguish native-speakers and people who simply learned the language.
Child-orientated speech ("Motherese")
A type of "language" spoken to children.
Simple vocabulary, clear pronunciation, repetition, high pitched and slow paced, with exaggerated pitch changes and facial expressions ("Oooh, you're so CUTE aren't you? Oh, yes you are!")
Recognizing important words and distinguishing between grammatical and meaning words (Like when your dog knows it's name or what "treat" and "walk" mean).
6 month-olds prefer to listen to nouns and verbs that convey meaning (dog, apple, run, etc.) rather than words that serve a grammatical function (the, and, etc.).
Language Production in Infants
Birth: Infants cry to "send a mesage" (I'm hungry, I'm sleepy, I want to be held, etc.)
2nd Month: Infants begin to coo
6-7 Months: infants start babbling
10 Months: Babbling sounds like native language
Vowel sounds only. "Ooh" "Aaah"
Repetitive consonant vowel (CV) sounds. "bababa"
Examples of pre- or non-linguistic communication
Attention: tugging on parent's leg
Persistence: repeatedly pointing to something, even after acknowledgement from parent.
First word: about 10 more words within 3-4 months
18 months: about 20-25 words
6 years old: about 10,000 words!
Children use context to make a reasonable guess about word meaning after one or two exposures ("Can you go grab me the furdangle next to the book on that table?" - Child will recognize book, and assume the other object is the furdangle)
Children use one word to refer to other objects in addition to objects adults would consider appropriate (Take your kid to the zoo, looks at Buffalo and says "Doggy". Tell the child the true name of the animal. Then when it sees another animal it will call it a buffalo).
Children use a word in a narrower sense than adults do ("Doggie" is reserved for the family pet).
Overregularization (Acquisition of grammar)
Children will initially use the simpler form of a word in every context (girl run vs. girl runs). Then they will create their own regular forms like "mouses" and "runned" by adding morphemes. ("mom wented to work")
18-24 months: combine two words ("hamburger, lunch"). Could have multiple meanings; i want a hamburger for lunch, I had a hamburger for lunch, etc. They omit words that serve grammatical functions (articles and prepositions).
The more transformations required, the longer it will take to comprehend. "The boy hit the ball" vs. "the ball was hit by the ball". The first sentence is an active sentence and the second is passive. The second has more transformations and takes longer to comprehend.
Reading vs. Speech
Reading is visual/space; speech is auditory/time
Writing shows discrete boundaries between words (spaces), speech does not.
Speech has auditory cues (stressed words, pace)
Readers can re-scan text, while you rely on working memory for speech.
Children must learn to read, speech is easily acquired.
Understanding discourse (reading)
While you're reading, you make inferences about characters or places with your LTM. (top-down and bottom-up processes).
"Bob was tall, even though he only had one leg."
"Bob entered the room." - With the information about Bob's leg, you'll picture him hobbling through the door or in a wheel chair.
With all the information you get while you read, you form a mental model in STM & LTM.
"They are cooking apples", "They are flying planes"
This ambiguity is resolved through: context, relative frequency of word, and common sense.
Stages in speech prouction
TOP DOWN PROCESS
- mentally plan discourse level
-devise general structure without choosing particular words ( sentence level)
-choose words and their particular for (lexical level)
-convert intentions into speech by articulating phonemes ( phonemes level)
3 types of speech errors
1. sound errors
2. morpheme errors
3. word errors
what can speech errors tell us?
what can go wrong and where in the linguistic process it happen
* errors happen at different levels of speech production; speech errors are made at the same units postulated by linguistic theorist( phoneme, morpheme, word)
ex: you have hissed all my history lectures
the lord is shoving a leopard to his flock
ex: dear old queen -> queer old queen
ex: take my bike -> bake my bike
ex: pulled a tantrum -> pulled a pantrum
ex: grisley and ghastly ->grastly
knowledge of social rules that govern language
common ground: conversationalist share similar background knowledge schemas an experience
direct vs. indirect
relationship: speaker's intention and actual utterance
direct ex: can you help me move my stuff. close the window
indirect ex: i wonder if i can find someone with a pickup truck to help me move.
its freezing here
difficulty communicating due to brain damage.
damage to the wernicke's area: speech is fluent but has no informational value; comprehension impaired
damage to the broca's area: expressive language deficits. speech violates syntax rules.may have trouble understanding language
left hemisphere - more specialized for speech perception, syntax, reading
cause and effect relationships
right hemiphere - interprets emotional tone
abstract language tasks (interprets humor and metaphors)
hemispheres works together to interpret subtle word meanings combine meanings of several sentences
make your contribution as informative as is required but not more informative than is required.
try to make your contribution one that is truthful. that is, do not say anything you believe to be false
make your contribution relevant of the aims of the ongoing conversation
be clear. try to avoid obscurity wordiness an disorderliness is your use of language