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82 terms

Biol. Test 2

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As you exercise harder and harder, you reach a point where your muscle cells use more oxygen than your bloodstream can provide. At this point, ______.
your muscles are working anaerobically, you are past your aerobic capacity , your muscle cells start producing lactic acid
With Oxygen
Aerobic
Humans use the calories they obtain from ______ as their source of energy
food
carried out by photosynethsis
Photosynthesis
Photosynethic organisms
Producers
A horse eating some hay is an example of ______.
a consumer eating a producer
The waste products of cellular respiration
Water + Carbondioxide
have chloroplasts and mitochondria
Plant cells
The ultimate source of the energy in food
sun
compound directly provides energy for cellular work
ATP
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a
cell wall and central vacuole
a gas exchange
Respiration
produces ATP
cellular respiration
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy
aerobic cellular respiration
The energy released from glucose by the process of cellular
ATP and heat
During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose is
carried by electrons
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance
redox reactions
None of the statements are true
During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following is a true statement about this process
Which of the following statements is completely true
is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons
The first electron acceptor of cellular respiration
NAD+
The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration
oxygen
all chemical processes that occur within cells
Metabolism
A product of glycolysis
pyruvic acid
Where in the cell does glycolysis occur
cytosol
glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
sequence of stages in cellular respiration
An enzyme's function depends on its ...
three dimentional shape
Substances that plug up an enzyme's active site
enzyme inhibitors
most similar to the mechanism of an enzyme inhibitor
keeping someone from parking by parking in their designated spot
an example of diffusion
passive transport
proceeds until equilibrium is reached
diffusion
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires what?
transport proteins
Facilitated diffusion moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.
down
the diffusion of water
Osmosis
A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true?
The solution in the balloon is hypertonic relative to the solution in the beaker.
When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______.
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.
isotonic to its environment
Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______.
is hypotonic to the protozoan
You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result, ______.
you dehydrate yourself
If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?
the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______.
become turgid
Cells with a higher concentration of ions than the surrounding medium tend to ______.
expand
Which processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?
active transport
uses ATP as an energy source, can move solutes against their concentration gradient, requires the cell to expend energy, can involve the transport of ions
Active transport
______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.
Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis
Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?
exocytosis
The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium
phagocytosis
Examine the following figure. Imagine that cell signaling using a signal transduction pathway is like a person answering the door after hearing the doorbell ring. Which step in this figure is like the button for the doorbell?
the receptor protein (reception)
Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell
signal transduction
most like a signal transduction pathway in a cell
person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell
If a person eats one hard-boiled egg and digests the egg fully, cellular respiration will convert most of this energy into ______.
heat
The amount of dietary Calories in one hard-boiled egg could raise the temperature of ______.
1,000 grams of water by 75 degrees Celsius
Molecules that come from the food we eat provide energy for the amazing work that goes on inside of our cells. This energy, stored inside of our food, is a form of ______.
potential energy called chemical energy
The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall.
Plant Cell
organelle responsible for photosynthesis
chloroplast
major lipids of plasma membranes.
Phospholipids
When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.
have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.
phospholipids and proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
protect and support cells and facilitate interactions between adjacent cells
extracellular coats of cells
Cells are often bound to the extracellular matrix by ______ in the plasma membrane
proteins
code for the structure of proteins
Gene
is composed of a double membrane
nuclear envelope
structural combination of DNA and protein
chromatin
human cells contain ______ chromosomes
46
organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes
nucleolus
organelle NOT defined by a membrane
ribosome
Where protein synthesis takes place
on ribosomes
Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.
ribosome
Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via
mRNA
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum
endomembrane system
A hormone destined for secretion from the cell would be manufactured by ribosomes _____
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
structures that move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus
transport vesicles
Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.
liver
lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification
Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
drug detoxification
function of the Golgi apparatus
parts of a cell that is (are) most like the shipping department of a company
the Golgi apparatus
are responsible for intracellular digestion
Lysosomes
As a ______ is to a cell, a(n) ______ is to a multicellular organism
lysosome . . . digestive system
If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.
digest itself
Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme
lysosomes
membranous sacs
Vacuoles
protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.
fresh water
In plant cells, ______ contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.
central vacuoles