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As you exercise harder and harder, you reach a point where your muscle cells use more oxygen than your bloodstream can provide. At this point, ______.

your muscles are working anaerobically, you are past your aerobic capacity , your muscle cells start producing lactic acid

With Oxygen


Humans use the calories they obtain from ______ as their source of energy


carried out by photosynethsis


Photosynethic organisms


A horse eating some hay is an example of ______.

a consumer eating a producer

The waste products of cellular respiration

Water + Carbondioxide

have chloroplasts and mitochondria

Plant cells

The ultimate source of the energy in food


compound directly provides energy for cellular work


Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a

cell wall and central vacuole

a gas exchange


produces ATP

cellular respiration

glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy

aerobic cellular respiration

The energy released from glucose by the process of cellular

ATP and heat

During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose is

carried by electrons

electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance

redox reactions

None of the statements are true

During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following is a true statement about this process

Which of the following statements is completely true

is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons

The first electron acceptor of cellular respiration


The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration


all chemical processes that occur within cells


A product of glycolysis

pyruvic acid

Where in the cell does glycolysis occur


glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain

sequence of stages in cellular respiration

An enzyme's function depends on its ...

three dimentional shape

Substances that plug up an enzyme's active site

enzyme inhibitors

most similar to the mechanism of an enzyme inhibitor

keeping someone from parking by parking in their designated spot

an example of diffusion

passive transport

proceeds until equilibrium is reached


Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires what?

transport proteins

Facilitated diffusion moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.


the diffusion of water


A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true?

The solution in the balloon is hypertonic relative to the solution in the beaker.

When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______.

exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration

A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.

isotonic to its environment

Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______.

is hypotonic to the protozoan

You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result, ______.

you dehydrate yourself

If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?

the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall

In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______.

become turgid

Cells with a higher concentration of ions than the surrounding medium tend to ______.


Which processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?

active transport

uses ATP as an energy source, can move solutes against their concentration gradient, requires the cell to expend energy, can involve the transport of ions

Active transport

______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.

Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis

Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?


The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium


Examine the following figure. Imagine that cell signaling using a signal transduction pathway is like a person answering the door after hearing the doorbell ring. Which step in this figure is like the button for the doorbell?

the receptor protein (reception)

Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell

signal transduction

most like a signal transduction pathway in a cell

person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell

If a person eats one hard-boiled egg and digests the egg fully, cellular respiration will convert most of this energy into ______.


The amount of dietary Calories in one hard-boiled egg could raise the temperature of ______.

1,000 grams of water by 75 degrees Celsius

Molecules that come from the food we eat provide energy for the amazing work that goes on inside of our cells. This energy, stored inside of our food, is a form of ______.

potential energy called chemical energy

The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall.

Plant Cell

organelle responsible for photosynthesis


major lipids of plasma membranes.


When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.

have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.

phospholipids and proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane

protect and support cells and facilitate interactions between adjacent cells

extracellular coats of cells

Cells are often bound to the extracellular matrix by ______ in the plasma membrane


code for the structure of proteins


is composed of a double membrane

nuclear envelope

structural combination of DNA and protein


human cells contain ______ chromosomes


organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes


organelle NOT defined by a membrane


Where protein synthesis takes place

on ribosomes

Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.


Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via


Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum

endomembrane system

A hormone destined for secretion from the cell would be manufactured by ribosomes _____

attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

structures that move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus

transport vesicles

Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.


lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification

Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

drug detoxification

function of the Golgi apparatus

parts of a cell that is (are) most like the shipping department of a company

the Golgi apparatus

are responsible for intracellular digestion


As a ______ is to a cell, a(n) ______ is to a multicellular organism

lysosome . . . digestive system

If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.

digest itself

Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme


membranous sacs


protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.

fresh water

In plant cells, ______ contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.

central vacuoles

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