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Chapters 17-18 Study Guide
Terms in this set (74)
Adam Smith was part of what intellectual movement?
Enlightened thinkers can be understood as secularists because they strongly recommended
Moving away from religious ideals and traditions and towards a world based on reason, rational thinking, and the scientific method
European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the away from religion, known as-
The works of Fontenelle announce the Enlightenment because they
popularize a growing skepticism toward the claims of religion.
John Locke's philosophy contributed to the development of Enlightenment ideas by arguing that a person's character was shaped by
the person's environment, not by innate ideas implanted in the brain by God
Who were the French philosophes?
Diderot, Montesquieu, and Voltaire; rational thinkers who used reason to change the world
Isaac Newton and John Locke's contributions to the Enlightenment
Natural Laws; used reason and rationality to understand human nature
The French philosophes mostly included people from which classes?
Nobility and middle classes
Above all, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws was concerned with
maintaining a system of checks and balances among the various branches of government; created by means of a separation of powers
The recognized capital of the Enlightenment was
Voltaire was best known for his criticism of ______________ intolerance.
An early female philosophe who published a translation of Newton's Principia and who was the mistress of Voltaire was
Marquis du Chatelet
Deism was based on
the Newtonian world-machine with God as its mechanic, designing the universe in accord with rational laws.
What was Denis Diderot know for?
Encyclopedia and his attacks on religion and religious ideas
Diderot's most famous contribution to the Enlightenment's battle against religious fanaticism, intolerance, and prudery was his
Montesquieu's Persian Letters allowed him to criticize-
French institutions, especially the Catholic Church and the French monarchy
Which Enlightenment philosophe wrote of the "general will?"
Of great importance to the Enlightenment were the salons, which
provided a forum for discussing the ideas of the philosophes.
The strongest statement and vindication of women's rights during the Enlightenment was made by
The Rococo artistic style of the eighteenth century was characterized by which artists?
Balthasar Neumann and Jacques-Louis David
Why did Johann Sebastian Bach produce religious music?
He believed that music, above all, was a means to worship God
European music in the later eighteenth century was well characterized by which two composers who shifted the scene to Vienna?
Hadyn and Mozart
Eighteenth-century writers, especially in England, provided sentimental entertainment to growing numbers of readers form of literary expression to attack the
The establishment of the modern fictional novel is generally attributed to the
The English writer who argued in A Serious Proposal to the Ladies that women should become better educated was
Great Britain led the way in the eighteenth century in
The spread of ideas through publishing and reading; coffeehouses
The eighteenth century musical composition that has been called one of those rare works that appeal immediately to everyone, and yet is indisputably a masterpiece of the highest order is (played at Christmas)
Messiah by Handel
A less brutal approach to justice and punishment in the eighteenth century is associated with who?
Concerning the European legal system, by the end of the eighteenth century, what punishments were on the decline?
Corporal and Capital punishment; public torture
The punishment for most crimes in the eighteenth century was often where and what?
Public execution and torture
What was Carnival of the Mediterranean world?
A time of partying and inappropriate behaviors in the period before lent, a time of fasting
A cheap and popular alcoholic drink in eighteenth century England was
The Jews of eighteenth-century Europe were most persecuted where?
Spain and Eastern Europe, especially Russia
John Wesley established what?
In reaction to significant elements of rationalism and deism, in what two countries did some ordinary Protestant churchgoers chose new religious movements?
England and Germany
Politically, the period from 1715 to 1789 witnessed
the continuing process of centralization in the development of nation-states for efficient taxation
During the eighteenth century, what happened to the idea of Divine Right?
It was replaced with Enlightenment ideas
France in the eighteenth century
lost an empire while acquiring a huge public debt
The reign of Louis XVI was characterized by his
Narcissism and the enormous debt he left his country; child imbecile
Eighteenth-century Great Britain under George I saw what important development in government?
A prime minister as an advisor to the king and to make laws
Enlightenment political thought advanced the concept of human natural rights including all of the following except
freedom from taxation
They had rights of:
Freedom of press
Freedom of property
Freedom of marriage
Which group dominated social and military eighteenth-century Prussia?
Under the reign of Frederick William I, Prussia became a ___________ state.
Frederick the Great of Prussia was what and did what for his country?
He was an enlightened despot who modernized bureaucracy, established religious toleration, expanded territory, and made his country more powerful
How did the Austrian people and aristocracy feel about Joseph II reforms?
They were overwhelmed by them, and so did not care for them
Were the legal reforms expressed by Catherine the Great in her Instruction successful?
No, they were rejected by the nobility
Where did Catherine the Great of Russia expand Russian territory?
Westward and Southward
Emelyn Pugachev is noted in Russian history for
The peasant rebellion in Russia
Which countries participated in the partition of Poland?
Russia, Prussia, and Austria
The dismemberment of Poland in the late eighteenth century was the result of-
Their lack of strong leadership
European diplomacy during the eighteenth century was predicated on the idea of
Balance of power and reason of state
The War of the Austrian Succession was fought between
Austria and Prussia
Who won, who lost, and what did the winner of the Seven Years War become
Britain won, France lost, and Britain became an empire
The Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Seven Years' War-(results)
France lost its empire and Britain became a world power
European warfare in the eighteenth century was characterized by
Professional Standing Armies, better technology, larger armies, increased nature of warfare, not more violent because of size, limited instead of ideological objectives, formal wars with rules of engagement, expensive, and did not seek to destroy tax-paying populations
Of the great European powers in the eighteenth century, the only one not to possess a large standing army and to rely on mercenaries was
European population growth in the second half of the eighteenth century
Was nearly double the rate of the first half of the century, slow but steady increase, improvements in diet, healthy people who live longer, and new crops
A key financial advantage the British government enjoyed over French rulers in the eighteenth century was (what did Britain develop-like the Netherlands -that France did not?)
European society in the eighteenth century witnessed
The continued dominance of the nuclear family
New European attitudes toward children are made visible in all of the following except
A decline of the custom of primogeniture (eldest gets everything)
The improvements in agricultural practices and methods in eighteenth-century Europe occurred primarily in
The domestic system of industrial production in England became known as the
A key financial innovation of the eighteenth century was
The circulation of paper banknotes compensating for the lack of coinage
A favorite type of private charity supported by the rich in eighteenth-century Europe was
Homes for poor and abandoned children
By the eighteenth century, the largest European social class comprised the
Europe's unequal social organization in the eighteenth century was
Determined by the division of society into traditional orders; nobility at the top, merchant class in the middle, poor peasants at the bottom
The European peasantry in the eighteenth century.
Made up a large portion of the population and "often owed extensive compulsory services to aristocratic landowners"
The diet of the European peasantry in the eighteenth century
Was made up of dark bread
The country house of the English noble
Showed their domination of the surrounding countryside, they invested much time, energy, and money in rural estates, giving this an important role in English social life
The Grand Tour
a cultural tour of Europe formerly undertaken, especially in the 18th century, by a young man of the upper classes as a part of his education (tutor)
Describe eighteenth-century European cities
Overcrowded and unsanitary
By the eighteenth century, the largest European city in terms of population was
The problem of poverty in eighteenth-century Europe was
Aggravated by the hostile feelings of government officials toward the poor because they thought they were lazy
Which 18th century composer wrote the opera "the marriage of Figaro"
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