151 terms

Furniture: Introduction and Materials

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Terms in this set (...)

intuitive technique
Based on the principle of free association and gives no restriction to imagination Quantity vs quality
brainstorming
Aims at setting off the creative forces by directly approaching the subconscious creative part of the mind.
brainwriting
Aimed at increasing output from brainstorming
synectics
Combines different, seemingly unrelated elements
Delphi method
Generates new ideas by solving the problem in a riddle-like or puzzle-like technique
inversion
Making a problem worse to solve it
morphology
Redefines the problem first to an underlying more basic problem and then split up into its elements or sub-problems which can be varied independently from each other
bionics
Systematically examines and analyzed objects of nature for possible adaptation to a solution
functional visualization
Thinking about the function an object will perform
problem area analysis and functional analysis
Logical approach which splits up the problems
structural form development
Uses the basic outline of a furniture
morphological form development
Makes use of previous design as basis for improvements
geometric form development
Variations on size, shape, color, proportion, mass, number or arrangement
nature form development
Form based on nature
lumber
Timber sawn or split in the form of beams, joists, planks, etc.
softwood
Coniferous or cone bearing
hardwood
Deciduous or broad-leafed
Narra
Most expensive wood, used for furniture, panelings, floorings, door panels, stairs, veneers and facings
Tanguile
Philippine mahogany
nominal size
Dimensions of wood before it is planed
actual
Dimensions of wood after it has been dressed
straight grain
Grain: Fibers running in the same direction as the main axis
interlocked grain
Grain: Successive layers in opposite directions
wavy or curly grain
Grain: Constantly changing in orientation so that a line drawn parallel o their direction appear as wavy lines
diagonal grain
Grain: When a straight grain log is not sawn along its axis
spiral grain
Grain: When trees grow twisted
irregular grain
Grain: Fibers are varying directions
knots
Basal stamps of incipient or cast-off branches in the living tree. Where the tree naturally prunes its branches.
pin knot
Small knot 12.5 mm or under
spike, slash or splay knot
Knots sliced through their length during sawing
encased knot
Dead knots often ringed with resin
branched knot
Two or three knots from a common center
shake
Tangential separation of the wood fibers along parts of the annual rings
radial shake
Log splits from the pith or heart radially along the medullary rays. Heart shake - double heart shake - star shake
frost shake
Project inwardly from a definite frost rib on the cambium, as a result of severe weather
tangential shake
Shake caused by seasoning, shearing stresses because of old age, excessive bending, etc. Cup shakes - ring shakes
cross shake
Shake caused by compression, not splitting or shearing. Occurs with a soft condition in the heartwood known as "brittle heart"
pitch vein, pitchpocket or resin pocket
Can appear either as thin veins or shallow cavities filled with resin
pith fleck
Repeated damage caused by small insects
rind galls
Patches of ingrowing bark
internal sapwood
When patches of sapwood survive within the heartwood
burls or burrs
Defect which may enhance the value of the timber. Caused by fungal or insect attack resulting in large rapid growths usually at the base of tree
callus
Tissue formed over a wound in a tree resulting in unnatural growth
canker
Caused by fungoid disease
catface
Partially heated fire scar
cupping or rounding
Plank hollows across the width
bowing
Plank is curved throughout its length
springing or edge bend or crook
The wood bends edgewise
twisting
Plank twists on its longitudinal axis
warping or casting
Distortion in one or more directions
end splitting
Butt end splits open caused by too rapid drying
sun checking
Small splits caused by too rapid drying in the hot sun
flaking
Surface of the wood lifts in innumerable small flakes
diagonal grain
Grain runs obliquely tot he longitudinal axis
case hardening
If the wood dries too quickly
honeycombing
If the kiln drying of the case-hardened timber is continued, it results in severe internal stresses and subsequent checking or disruption of the wood fibers
collapse
Too rapid kiln drying of green timber resulting in the flattening of wood cells.
transparent finish
Emphasizes and enhances the charm of natural wood color and grain
penetrating finish
Soaks into wood pores to give a natural look and feel
surface coating
Seals wood pores for protection against water and other destructive elements
clear lacquer
Resin + Ethyl alcohol
varnish
Gums and resins + oil or alcohol
natural
Varnish made from gums derived from plants, insects and vegetable matter
synthetic
Varnish from resin, commonly esterified glycerine
shellac
Lac flakes + denatured alcohol
oil stain
Wood finish using boiled linseed oil or other oils
polyurethane
Transparent plastic finish made of polyhydric alcohol esterified with oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearic fatty acids
wax or films
Achieved by brushing, rubbing or spraying processed fatty acids combined with alcohol
wood stain
Dyes or pigments suspended in water or oil, alters coloring of wood or accentuates its natural color
bleach
Applying acids and chlorine to wood.
opaque finish
Gives a solid finish for protection and decoration
paints and enamels
A mixture of solid pigment suspended in a liquid vehicle which, when applied to a surface, forms an adherent continuous film
pigment vehicle thinner drier
4 ingredients of paint
pigment
A finely ground, insoluble substance suspended in a liquid vehicle to impart color
vehicle
Non-volatile fluid in which the solid body material is suspended
thinner
Volatile liquid used to dilute paint or varnish to the desired or proper consistency
drier
Added to paint to accelerate the oxidation and hardening of vehicle
plywood
Made of thin veneer sheets glued on top of the other with sheets arranged crosswise. Available in 4' x 8', and 1/8 to 1 inch thick.
plyboard
Series of wood core strips glued together side by side to form a slab
particle board
Composed of wood chips carefully graded, mixed with synthetic resin glue and either pressed or extruded into rigid, self-supporting sheets
LPL
Also called melamine
polyester
Expensive but with a durable color finish sprayed
thermafoil
A thermal-activated vinyl composition that forms to any configuration with heat and glue.
plastics
Long chain, molecular structures evolved from common elements and compounds
thermoplastic
Plastic that can be heated and remolded
thermosetting
Plastic that cannot be remolded
rigid foam plastics
Can be foamed with suitable gassing agents to form rigid shell structures.
polyurethane
Very high thermal resistance, low water absorption and low water vapor permeability, good thermal stability. Available as blocks, boards, slabs, molded shapes, liquid pre foam mixtures
phenolic foam
Relatively low resistance for given thickness, high strength and very good thermal stability. Available as blocks, sheets and liquid pre-foam mixtures for foaming in place.
urea formaldehyde
High thermal resistance for a given thickness, but low mechanical strength. High water absorption, high water vapor permeability. Available as blocks, slabs, shreds and liquid pre-foam mixtures.
epoxy
Good insulation efficiency. High strength, good chemical and moisture resistance. Available as board stock, moulded shapes, liquid pre-foam mixture for foaming in place and spraying.
polyester fiberglass laminates
Plastic wherein one side is smooth and the other rough. The shaped molding is composed of laminations of chopped strand glass mat impregnated with polyester resin
GRP former mold
The wax coat is first huffed off the pattern which is then coated with a polyester emulsion wax release, followed by a wax polish then PVA release agent. Then it is followed by two layers of gel coat, before catalyzed resin is brushed on and a layer of chopped strand glass. Mold is allowed to cure for at least 4 hours.
finished mold
The former mold is treated with emulsion wax, wax polish and release agent then a single gel coat followed by glass mat and resin. Does not require further polishing
Perspex or acrylic sheet
Readily obtainable in clear transparent pastel shades, full colors.
nylon
Can be cold drawn to five times its strength
plastic laminates
Composed of layers of craft paper impregnated with phenolic resins while the surface pattern is printed on a cover paper and coated with a scratch-resistant surface of melamine resin. Brands: Formica, Wilson Art, Consulweld
ferrous metal
Composed mainly of iron with small addition of other substances (wrought, cast, mild, carbon steel)
wrought iron
Iron with traces of silicate. Tough and ductile.
cast iron
Iron with small amounts of carbon, silicon, sulfur, etc.
mud steel
Iron with up to 0.3% carbon
stainless steel
Steel with chromium and nickel
tool and alloy steel
Steel with nickel, chromium, copper and manganese
copper-bearing steel
Steel with high corrosion resistance. Used in sheet steel and metal lathe
non ferrous metal
Contains no iron
aluminum
Silvery white, soft, ductile metal remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation.
copper
Pure metal. Lustrous, reddish-brown metal, highly ductile and malleable. Used in hot water pipes, electrical parts and decorative work.
lead
Pure metal. Soft, malleable, heavy metal. Very easy to cut and work, enabling it to be fitted over uneven surfaces. Used in plumbing, flashings, linings and weighting.
zinc
Pure metal used as a substitute for lead.
tin
Pure metal. Lustrous, white, soft, malleable metal with a low melting point and is relatively unaffected by exposure to air.
alloys
Combination of metals
bronze
Copper with tin used in pump units, marine fittings, gears and bearings
duralumin
Aluminum with copper used in shelving systems, legs, pulleys, bolts, rivets and claddings
brass
Copper with zinc used in cabinet hardware, screws and decorative work
age hardening
Slow hardening process for metals
brittleness
Ability to break under a sharp blow
conductivity
Capacity to transmit heat and electricity
ductility
Ability to b stretched into fine wire without fracture
elasticity
Ability to regain original shape after deformation
fusibility
Property of becoming liquid when heated
hardness
Resistance to deformation
malleability
Capacity to be extended in all directions
tenacity or cohesion
Resistance to a pulling force
work hardening
Hardening of metal while it is being hammered or bent
coating
Metal finish in which a coating material is applied on a metallic substrate. Includes powder/liquid coating, laminating with plastic films, painting, enameling, lacquering, plastic or nylon coating
lacquering
Coating with a formulation based on a dissolved material which forms a transparent layer primarily after drying by evaporation of the solvent
coil coating
Continuous coating of a metal strip
backing coat
Single coating of any type, usually on the reverse side of the coated product
chemical conversion coating
Treatment of a metal with chemical solutions by dipping or spraying to build up an oxide film containing chromates or phosphates
priming
Application of a priming paint often pigmented with a corrosion inhibitor such as zinc chromate, after suitable pretreatment
pretreatment priming
Application of a solution containing a resin, a chromate, and an acid which is allowed to dry on and provide the key for subsequent painting
single coat system
Single coating either with requirements on appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, subsequent painting, etc. or as a primer with special properties regarding adhesion and corrosion protection for post-painting applications
multiple coat system
System comprising a primer or a base coat, possibly intermediate coats and a top coat with particular requirements
organic coating
Dry paint film of the coated product or the organic film metal laminate
film coating
Organic film applied to a substrate to which an adhesive and primer has been applied beforehand
metallic coating
Process of applying a thin coating of an expensive anti-corrosive metal (chrome, nickel, bronze, silver, zinc)
chemical brightening
Chemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface
chemical polishing
Polishing of a metal surface by immersion in a solution of regents
degreasing
Removal of oil or grease, usually by a suitable organic solvent or an aqueous detergent
etching
Roughening of the surface of a metal by overall or selective dissolution in acid or caustic media
pickling
Removal of a thin surface layer of a metal by chemical action, mainly by a caustic solution
electrochemical
A chemical change accompanying the passage of an electric current
electrochemical brightening
Electrochemical treatment to improve optical reflectivity
electropolishing
Polishing of a metal surface by making it anodic in an appropriate electrolyte
anodized metal
Metal with an anodic coating produced by an electrolytic oxidation process in which the metal is converted to a mainly oxide coating
clear anodized metal
Metal with a colorless, translucent, anodic oxidation coating
color anodized metal
Anodized metal colored either during anodizing or by subsequent coloring processes
integral color anodized metal
Metal that has been anodized using appropriate electrolyte which produces a colored coating during the process itself
electrolytically colored anodized metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that has been colored by the electrolytic deposition of a metal or metal oxide into the pore structure
dyed anodized metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by dyestuff or pigments into the pore structure
combination color anodized metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that is colored by electrolytic coloring or produced by integral color anodizing followed by dyeing