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magma that has low viscosity and low silica and gas content; eruption is non-explosive
theory proposed by Alfred Wegener that the continents once formed a single supercontinent that broke up and drifted apart
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material
a natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles and distributes Earth's water; often called the water cycle
moment magnitude scale
newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall
the theory that the lithosphere is broken into pieces that float on the asthenosphere
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall
magma that has a high viscosity and high silica and gas content; eruption tends to be very explosive
process by which the Earth's lithospheric plates pull apart from each other, creating gaps that are filled with magma from the asthenosphere
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions
eroded volcanic feature that formed from magma cooling in the central vent of a volcano
the cool, rigid shell that includes the crust and uppermost mantle; composed of plates that move around on the underlying, plastic asthenosphere
state in which small, light particles are mixed with, but not dissolved in, a fluid or solid.
also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines
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