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115 terms

Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Review Terms

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andesitic magma
magma that is a mix of basaltic and rhyolitic; eruption may or may not be explosive
anticline
arch-shaped, upward fold in rock
atmosphere
the gaseous layer of a planet usually retained by its gravity
basaltic magma
magma that has low viscosity and low silica and gas content; eruption is non-explosive
batholith
a large mass of hardened igneous rock beneath all layers of sedimentary rock
biosphere
the system of Earth by which living organisms exist
cinder cone volcano
volcano formed of volcanic rock and ash; erodes quickly
climate
long-term weather patterns of a particular area
composite volcano
volcano that is tall and steep; formed of lava and volcanic debris
continental drift
theory proposed by Alfred Wegener that the continents once formed a single supercontinent that broke up and drifted apart
convection
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material
core
innermost layer of the earth; divided into an inner and outer core
correlation spectrometer
instrument used to measure volcanic gases
crust
the outermost layer that forms the surface of the earth; upper part of the lithosphere
cryosphere
the frozen water or ice system of a planet
differentiation
a process creating different layered compositions of a planet
dike
vertical intrusion of magma between rock layers
equilibrium
two opposing forces in balance, where two opposite events are occurring at equal rates
food chain
line of plants and animals that shows the order in which organisms are eaten
food web
a diagram that shows the connections among food chains in an ecosystem
footwall
block of rock below the slant of a fault
graben
a lower block of rock between two normal faults
guyot
a volcanic island under sea that has been cut off by wave erosion
hanging wall
block of rock above the slant of a fault
Hawaiian eruption
non-explosive or very mild volcanic eruption
horst
an uplifted block of rock between two normal faults
hydrologic cycle
a natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles and distributes Earth's water; often called the water cycle
hydrosphere
the water system of the earth; includes solid, gas, and liquid water
laccolith
intrusive rock that pushes its way between sedimentary strata in the shape of a dome
lava
molten rock on Earth's surface
lithosphere
the solid, crustal layer of Earth
magma
molten rock beneath Earth's crust
magnitude
measure of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake
mantle
middle layer of the earth; composed of an upper and lower mantle
Mercalli intensity scale
scale that measures the effects or severity of an earthquake
mineral
solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure
moment magnitude scale
newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake
monocline
a ramp-like fold between flat rock layers at different elevations
normal fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall
Pangaea
supercontinent which connected the landmasses of the southern and northern hemispheres
Panthalassa
meaning "all seas"; name of the single, large ocean that surrounded Pangaea
plate tectonics
the theory that the lithosphere is broken into pieces that float on the asthenosphere
plinian eruption
the most powerful, explosive type of volcanic eruption
pyroclastic flow
volcanic flow that contains a high concentration of gases, ash, and small rocks
reverse fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall
rhyolitic magma
magma that has a high viscosity and high silica and gas content; eruption tends to be very explosive
Richter scale
scale of magnitude based on the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake
rock cycle
natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles Earth's minerals
scarp
cliff-like landform created by a normal fault
seafloor spreading
process by which the Earth's lithospheric plates pull apart from each other, creating gaps that are filled with magma from the asthenosphere
seamount
an underwater volcano
seismograph
instrument used to record and measure vibrations from earthquakes or earth tremors
shield volcano
volcano that has tall, broad slopes; formed by repeated, gradual lava flows
sill
horizontal intrusion of magma between rock layers
strike-slip fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions
strombolian eruption
an intermittent explosive volcanic eruption
subduction
sinking of one tectonic plate beneath another
syncline
U-shaped, downward fold in rock
tectonic cycle
natural and continuous cycle of Earth that recycles Earth's lithospheric plates
thermodynamics
the study of energy and its transformations.
tiltmeter
instrument used to measure ground swelling
viscosity
ability of a substance to resist flowing
volcanic neck
eroded volcanic feature that formed from magma cooling in the central vent of a volcano
abrasion
wearing away or grinding by friction
atmosphere
the gaseous layer of a planet, usually retained by its gravity
backwash
water that flows back into the ocean after a wave has broken
biomass
organic material made from plants and animals
biosphere
the living organisms of Earth
clast
an individual particle or grain in sedimentary rock
cleavage
how a crystal breaks or splits when stressed
correlation spectrometer
instrument used to measure volcanic gases
delta
triangular deposition of fine, fertile soil at the mouth of a river
deposition
placement of weathered rock and sediment by erosion
dissolution
process of dissolving
erosion
transport and deposition of weathered rock
extrusive
forming outside, on the surface of Earth's crust
fjord
long, narrow bay created when ocean water fills a glaciated valley
fold axis
semi-dark line that indicates the ridge of a fold on a geologic map
geologic map
shows locations and types of rocks and other features, like faults and folds
hachure marks
teeth-like marks on contour lines that indicate a depression or sunken area
homogeneous
having a uniform structure or composition
horizon
layer of distinct soil
hydrolysis
chemical reaction involving ions in water (OH- and H+)
hydropower
use of water to generate electricity
hydrosphere
the water system of the earth—solid, liquid, and gas
inorganic
formed from non-living materials
intrusive
forming inside, under Earth's crust
kinetic
related to or possessing motion
liquefaction
weakening of oversaturated soil caused by seismic waves
lithosphere
the cool, rigid shell that includes the crust and uppermost mantle; composed of plates that move around on the underlying, plastic asthenosphere
loess
fertile accumulation of soil and sediment deposited by wind
luster
how a mineral appears to reflect light
mass wasting
downhill movement of rock and sediment caused by gravity
medium
substance which enables the transport of weathered rock and sediment
methane
compound of carbon and hydrogen (CH4)
mineral
solid, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure
moraine
accumulation of unsorted rock and sediment deposited by a glacier
nonrenewable
unable to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
oxidation
chemical reaction in which minerals are weakened by oxygen
renewable
able to be recycled or replenished in a short period of time
respiration
the process by which oxygen combines with food to release energy and carbon dioxide
saltation
when wind lifts sediment off the ground and carries it a short distance
sediment
weathered rock, bone fragments, soil, and other particles carried by wind, water, and ice
soil
top layer of mineral and organic material on Earth's surface
stalactite
chemical sedimentary rock hanging from the ceiling of a cave
stalagmite
chemical sedimentary rock growing from the floor of a cave
streak
the true color of a mineral in powdered form
terminal fall velocity
velocity at which sediment is deposited by wind
suspension
state in which small, light particles are mixed with, but not dissolved in, a fluid or solid.
swash
water that flows onto the shore after a wave has broken
talus
angular pile of broken rock found at the bottom of a mountain
threshold velocity
velocity required to transport sediment by wind
topographic map
also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines
tsunami
series of destructive ocean waves caused by vibrations in Earth's crust
windbreak
row of trees or shrubs used to reduce the force of wind