Terms in this set (55)
Of the following, which is the most inclusive level of organization in nature?
Which of the following causes Earth's seasons?
Earths tilt on the axis
Which level of ecological study focuses the most on abiotic factors?
Which of the following choices includes all of the others in creating global terrestrial climates?
differential heating of Earth's surface
Why is the climate drier on the leeward (downwind) side of mountain ranges that are subjected to prevailing winds?
Pushed by the prevailing winds on the windward side, air is forced to rise, cool, condense, and drop its precipitation, leaving drier air to descend the leeward side.
Imagine some cosmic catastrophe jolts Earth so that its axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane between Earth and the sun. The most obvious effect of this change would be
the elimination of seasonal variation
The main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is that
sunlight strikes the poles at a lower angle
The success of plants extending their range northward following glacial retreat is best determined by
their seed dispersal rate
Generalized global air circulation and precipitation patterns are caused by
rising, warm, moist air masses that cool and release precipitation as they rise and then, at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics
Coral reefs can be found on the southeast coast of the United States but not at similar latitudes on the southwest coast. Differences in which of the following most likely account for this?
Generally speaking, deserts are located in places where air masses are usually
When climbing a mountain, we can observe transitions in biological communities that are analogous to the changes
in biomes of different latitudes
If the direction of Earth's rotation reversed, the most predictable effect would be
winds blowing from west to east on the equator
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
What is a biome?
a major type of ecosystem
Besides sunlight, which would be the next most important climatic factors for terrestrial plants?
temperature and moisture
If global warming continues at its present rate, which biomes will likely take the place of the coniferous forest (taiga)?
temperate broadleaf forest and grassland
Suppose that the number of bird species is determined mainly by the number of vertical strata found in the environment. If so, in which of the following biomes would you find the greatest number of bird species?
tropical rain forest
In deep water, which of the following abiotic factors would most limit productivity?
A fish swimming into an estuary from a river would have which of the following as its greatest physiological challenge?
The change in water solute content would challenge the osmotic balance of the fish.
The oceans affect the biosphere by
being the source of most of Earth's rainfall, producing a substantial amount of the biosphere's oxygen, moderating terrestrial enviroments
Which of the following areas of study focuses on the exchange of energy, organisms, and materials between ecosystems?
Which of the following is characteristic of most terrestrial biomes?
cold winter months, vegetation demonstrating vertical layering
Why do bodies of water tend to moderate climate?
the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat.
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S?
Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
Wet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused by
Assume that the average temperature in a particular city in the year 1900 was 10.3°C. Based on known warming trends in global climate, what do you expect the average temperature to be in that city in the year 2000?
11.1 C (Increases 0.8 degrees/100 years)
Which of the following statements about biomes is correct?
the major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.
What helps produce the patchiness found in most biomes?
Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia?
The soil is fertile, and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Which of the following pairs of biomes is characterized by relatively simple food webs
tundra and desert
In which of the following biomes would you expect decomposers to work most rapidly and efficiently?
After nutrient enrichment from sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why?
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
Plankton consists of
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
Populations that display a uniform geographic distribution of individuals are being shaped by
intense competition for some factor in the environment
Organisms that are regulators
maintain a constant internal environment in the face of a changing external environment
According to the principle of allocation
each individual has a limited amount of energy, and energy used for one task is not available for use in another task
Which of the following set of environmental conditions is characteristic of grassland biomes?
very hot summers and cold winters with low to medium rainfall and frequent droughts
Animals that are conformers
are often restricted to relatively stable environments because these organisms don't tolerate environmental change
Which of the following biomes would you expect to find in an area of the earth in which there is moderate rain fall,
cool summers and very cold winters?
A community is
all the organisms living in an area
study between organisms and their enviroments
examines regional exchange of energy and materials influence the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere
energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the enviroment
What causes latitudinal variation?
earths curved shape
why does the equator receive the most precipitation?
due to the high intensity of sunlight, with high evaporation rates, there is a lot of moisture in the atmosphere
Equatorial region with relatively constant rainfall annually, temperature is warm year around with little seasonal variation, competition for light
tropical rain forest
usually found 30 N and S, rainfall is low and highly variable, temperature varies seasonally and daily
found around the world, constant annual rainfall with periodic droughts, winters are cold and summers are hot
largest terrestrial biome on earth, average annual rainfall with periodic droughts, winters are very cold and summers are cool and sometime hot
20% earths land surface, medium amounts of annual precipitation, winters are very cold and summers are also cool