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WESTERN CIV FINAL
Terms in this set (42)
Rise in 1300. Written in the common tongue. What regular folks talk.
In 1300 there is a deep and passionate interest in exploring ancient culture in Ancient Greece. Began as a linguistic project. Focused on capturing and providing an ancient classical style. Focuses on human interaction. Offered a sense of historical change. Wanted to drill down to the sources. Reading of traditional languages. All about practical moral reform.
Father of Humanism. Born in Florence. Greatest fame was his research on the Greek Roman Cicero. Extremely unhappy with the state of education particularly with Scholasticism. Believed this method distorted everything by trying to put forms of knowledge and philosophy in boxes. Believed humanism was how it made you a better person. Made logical arguments must be to reason.
Italian Priest. Spends most of his life teaching in Rome. Best known for two things: 1) Teaching Rhetoric 2) Work on historical taxes. Realization that language changes. Uses sensibilities of fellow humanists to solve a practical problem.
To the sources.
Donation of Constantine
A forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Discovered in the year 1000. Constantine did not like this. Likely written in 800"s.
Born in Roterdam Holland around 1466. At the age of 20 he enters a montastary and 5 years later becomes on ordained priest. Was considered international celebrity. Was a universal European. Was a fundamentally text scholar. Greatest work was his Greek New Testament published in 1516. Wrote the Praise of Folly in 1519. Extremely critical of common devotional practices.
Praise of Folly
An essay written by Desiderius Erasmus that uses satire to point out corrupt practices of the Church. Most iconic text in the Renaissance. Critical devotion to prayer.
From Florence. His father was a bureaucrat. Produced art in Florence and in Rome. During early period he produced his famous Pieta (statue of Mary holding dead Jesus during crucifixion). In 1498 he was summoned by Pope Julius II. Was more of a sculptor. By the end of his life produces another set of work in the Sistine Chapel called "The Last Judgement."
Lorenzo de Medici
Aka: Lorenzo the Magnificent. Ruler of Florence. Worked hard to keep all Principalities in balance and there became peace.
Pope Julius II
Pope known for wearing armor and leading arms into battle. Aimed to return the glory of prestige to Rome and in the papacy. Wants to build great monuments. Says he wants a tomb for himself and commands Michelangelo. Commands Michelangelo to put pictures on the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.
Italian poet who wrote the Divine Comedy. He buried in Ravenna, although an empty tomb in Florence is dedicated to him. Dante is known for his ability as a world-class poet, for his interest in politics, and for being exiled from Florence. In a way, he remains exiled from Florence, as his body in not in a tomb in Florence.
The Divine Comedy
Book by Dante Alighieri, describes soul's progression into heaven.
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400).
The Canterbury Tales
A collection of stories written in Middle-English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey to Thomas Becket's tomb. It begins in the Tabard inn.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand III (1452-1516) and Isabella I (1451-1504) were the king of Aragon and the queen of Castille. Their marriage in 1469 joined the two countries to become the country of Spain. Their military efforts were responsible for the final success of the Reconquista. They want to push out all of the Jews. They approach the pope and ask him to formally decree all the lands South and West of a particular Meredidian line were to be in possession of most Catholic kings of Spain.
Reclaiming the Iberian peninsula as Christian land. Isabella's project to drive the Muslims out of Spain and take it back for the church. (Re-conquest).
Fall of Grenada
In 1492. The battle which gave the Christians Spain once and for all. (Also freed the Spanish monarchs up to fund Columbus Voyage.
Decree of Alhambra
Ejecting all Jews from Spain.
Christopher Columbus First Voyage
In 1492 he discovered America.
All the land there to the South and West is granted by the Pope to the monarchs of Spain. Papal Bull.
Vasco da Gama
In 1497. Using the new trade route around the Cape of Good Hope, he brought spices back to Portugal and made a profit of several thousand dollars. First voyage to India.
Professor at Oxford in England. Critical of the clergy. Critical of people reading the Bible in translation. Concerned about how the church is structured. Inspires a guy named Jan Hus.
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy. Was burned at the Stake in 1418. Known for when one received communion, the only one who received the cup was the celebrating priest, everyone else got the bread.
Pope sends his indulgent sellers into Germany and the indulgences are sold.
Monk and Professor of scripture at University of Wittenberg. Father wanted him to be a lawyer and trained for law. Posts 95 Theses (talking points) in 1517. Ends up getting in trouble for posting these. One day he is traveling on foot in the countryside and a storm comes up and lightning strikes at him and cries out to St. Anne and says if you save me I will become a monk. Then he becomes an Augustinian Friar. Believes he will live good enough for God. Known as the reformation break through.
It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.
Fall of Rome
Beginning of Roman Empire.
Death of Marcus Aureillis
Battle of Hastings (Norman Conquest)
Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas day.
Traditional date of the establishment of the Roman Republic.
King John signs the Magna Carta. (English Common Law).
Battle of Milvian Bridge; conversion of Constantine to Christianity
Council of Nicaea
Destruction of the First Temple by Babylonians
Destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans.
First Peloponnesian War begins
Battle of Thermopylae. Victory of the Persians
The Bubonic Plague arrives in Italy
Columbus/Reconquista of Spain
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
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