85 terms

AP Human Geography - Chapter 1: Geography, Its Nature and Perspectives

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absolute distance
a distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length
absolute location
the exact position of an object/place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
accessibility
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
anthropogenic
human-induced changes on the natural environment
Azimuthal projection
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
breaking point
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies
Carl Sauer
geographer from the University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape (which results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment) as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.
cartogram
a type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
cartography
theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps
chrolopleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
cognitive map
an image of a portion of Earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships among locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places.
complementarity
the actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
connectivity
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
contagious diffusion
the spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or place
coordinate system
a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on Earth's surface
cultural ecology
the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments which they live in
cultural landscape
the human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
distance decay effect
the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
dot maps
thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
Earth System Science
a systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale
environmental geography
the intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa
Eratosthenes
the head librarian at Alexandria during the third century BC, one of the first cartographers. performed a remarkably accurate computation of Earth's circumference. also credited with coining the term GEOGRAPHY!
expansion diffusion
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
Fertile Crescent
the name given to the crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile Valley along the east Mediterranean coast and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began in about 8000 BC
Formal Region
definition of regions based on common themes such as similarities in language, climatic, land use, etc
friction of distance
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Fuller projection
a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions (NSEW) no longer have any meaning
Functional Region
definition of regions based on common interaction (or function)
ex) a boundary line drawn around the circulation of a popular newspaper, the San Francisco Bay area
Geographical Information System (GIS)
a set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data
geoid
the actual shape of Earth, which is rough and oblate (slightly squashed). diameter longer around the equator than along the north-south meridians.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on Earth's surface with a portable electronic device
gravity model
a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places based on the sizes of their populations and their distance from each other
hierarchical diffusion
a type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of a physical or cultural community between those places
Human Geography
the study of the spatial variation in the patterns and processes related to human activity
idiographic
pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
international dateline
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
intervening opportunity
one place has a demand for good/service, two places have a supply of equal price/quality -> the closer supplier represents an intervening opportunity, blocking the other from sharing its supply.
isoline
a map line connecting points of equal or very similar values
large scale
a relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude (parallels) - from 0 to 90 degrees
law of retail gravitation
a law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct business since larger cities have wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands
location chart
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical info about a particular political unit or jurisdiction
longitude
the angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, defined by lines of longitude (meridians) - from 0 to 180 degrees
map projection
mathematically transferring Earth's sphere onto a flat surface. also describes the resulting type of map. always has distortions in area/direction/distance/shape
map scale
the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that area on Earth's surface
George Perkins Marsh
an inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar. his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
Mercator projection
a true conformal cylindrical map projection. particularly useful for navigation since it maintains accurate direction. distortion makes landmasses at/near the poles OVERSIZED.
meridian
a line of longitude running north-south. equal in length and intersect at the poles.
natural landscape
physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities
nomothetic
used to describe concepts or rules that can be applied universally
parallel
an east-west line of latitude running parallel to the equator and marking distance north/south of the equator
perceptual region
highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape
Peters Projection
an equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally
physical geography
the realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and changes through time of the natural phenomena of Earth's surface
preference map
a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
Prime Meridian
an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, that marks the 0' line of longitude
proportional symbols map
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Ptolemy
Roman geographer-astronomer, author of Guide to Geography, which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
qualitative data
data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives
quantitative data
data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
quantitative revolution
a period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques
reference map
a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation
region
a territory that encompasses many places that share similar physical and/or cultural attributes
regional geography
the study of geographic regions
relative distance
a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. often describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places
relative location
the position of a place relative to the places around it
relocation diffusion
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and so on from one place to another through migration
remote sensing
the observation and mathematical measurement of Earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. sensors include photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.
resolution
a map's smallest discernible unit.
ex) if an object must be one kilometer long to appear on a map, that map's resolution is one kilometer.
Robinson projection
a projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. does not maintain ANYTHING in area/shape/distance/direction completely but MINIMIZES errors in each
sense of place
feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place
site
the absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural/physical characteristics
situation
the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system (put simply, a place's spatial context)
small scale
a map scale ration in which the ration of units on the map to units on the Earth is quite small. small-scale maps usually depict large areas
spatial diffusion
the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space
spatial perspective
an intellectual framework that looks at the particular location of a specific phenomenon, how and why that phenomenon is where it is, and finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places
sustainability
concept of using Earth's resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing the ability to provide for future generations
thematic layers
individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a GIS to understand and analyze a spatial relationship
thematic map
a type of map displaying one+ variables (such as population or income level) within a specific area
time-space convergence
the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction among those places
topographic maps
maps using isolines to represent constant elevations.
fun fact: if you took one of these out and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on the map, you would always be at the same elevation!
topological space
the amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them
transferability
the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
visualization
use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are 3D or interactive
W.D. Pattison
dude who claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: 1) the earth-science tradition, 2) the culture-environment tradition, 3) the locational tradition, and 4) the area-analysis tradition
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