45 terms

Respiratory System: Study Set

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What are the functions of the respiratory system? (REV
to Regulate body pH,
to Exchange gases between blood and asmosphere, and
Vocalization

(Water and heat loss & exchange)
(Protect against inhaled pathogens;)
(Choose 3 functions to memorize - acronym for all is REWind.,V.P.!)
Describe the 2nd process of gas exchange (external respiration).
External respiration is moving gases between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries.
Describe the 3rd process of gas exchange (gas transport).
Gas transport is how respiratory gases are transported through vasculature.
Describe the 4th process of gas exchange (internal respiration).
Internal respiration is moving gases between blood and peripheral tissues.
What are the 2 portions of the Respiratory System if categorized by Anatomical Position? (Up 3, Low 4)
Upper Respiratory Tract includes (1) Nose; (2) Nasal Cavity; and (3) Pharynx;

Lower Respiratory Tract includes (1) Larynx; (2) Trachea; (3) Bronchii; and (4) all divisions of bronchii down to respiratory bronchioles and alveoli (Lower = Larynx to & thru Lungs)
What are the 2 portions of the Respiratory System if categorized by Physiological Function?
Conducting Pathway - all air passages from
the Nasal & Oral Cavities to
Terminal Bronchiioles ;

Respiratory Pathway - where gases are exchanged. It includes Respiratory Bronchioles,
Alveolar Ducts, and
Alveoli
What is the function of cilia?
To sweep particulates toward pharynx so they can be swallowed, then digested in stomach.
What are the structures of the nasal cavity?
(6: EVOC, P.I.)
External nares; nasal Vestibule; olfactory region; nasal conchae; palate; & internal nares.
What are alternate names for External nares, Internal nares, and Nasal Conchae?
External nares are nostrils;

Internal nares are the Posterior nasal aperture;

Nasal Conchae are Nasal Turbinates
What is the olfactory region and what is its function?
Found on superior surface of Nasal Cavity, it is lined by Olfactory Epithelium.

Olfactory Epithelium helps dissolve odor-causing molecules. Olfactory Neurons can then detect these molecules.
What are the functions of the nasal conchae? FM radio)
1) to Force turbulent air flow;
2) to Moisten and warm the air
(3) (to enhance contact with mucosa) (chose 2)
Name and briefly describe the 3 portions of the Pharynx.
the Nasopharynx is most superior. It extends from Internal Nares to the posterior part of the Soft Palate.

the Oropharynx, extends from the Soft Palate to the base of the Tongue at the Hyoid.

the Laryngopharynx, a narrow portion extends from the Oropharynx to the entrance of the esophagus.
What are the superior and inferior boundaries of the pharynx?
the internal nares and the tracheal opening
At what structures does the Nasopharynx begin and end?
It begins at the internal nares and ends at the posterior part of the soft palate
Where is the pharyngeal tonsil found?
On the posterior wall of the nasopharynx
At what structures does the Oropharynx begin and end?
It begins at the soft palate and ends at the base of the tongue at the hyoid bone.
What are 2 dominant features of the Oropharynx? (U.T.
the Uvula and
the Tongue
What is the function of the uvula? (2
1) To help humans vocalize.

2) to keep food out of External nares during swallowing;
What are 3 functions of the Larynx? (V.E.E.
(Memorize 3 functions)

(1) called Voice Box, It contributes greatly to Vocalization;
(2) it Ensures that air moves down the trachea;
(3) it Ensures that food moves down the esophagus;
(4)( helps with Swallowing)
What structures is the epiglottis connected to?
the Thyroid cartilage and Hyoid bone (posterior view on Slide 14 shows connection to Thyroid cartilage)
What 2 laryngeal structures are found in the Glottis region? State 1 fact about each
medial are the Vocal Folds, or true vocal chords, made of delicate elastic tissue. Lateral are the Vestibular Folds, or false vocal chords, made of inelasic tissue; Vestibulars have 2 main functions: 1) to protect the vocal folds, and 2) to prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis.
What is the function of the epiglottis?
It prevents food from entering the trachea and passing into the lungs.
What happens to the epiglottis during swallowing?
Elevation of the larynx & hyoid bone causes the epiglottis to fold back over the glottis,

which prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea.
What are the 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles? What are their functions?
Lateral and Posterior Cricoarytenoid muscles. Their functions are to increase or decrease tension on the vocal folds. The Posterior Cricoarytenoids open the vocal folds and the Lateral Cricoarytenoids close the vocal folds.
What makes the trachea a tough and inflexible tube? (S.15-20 Partial,connected to each other by)
It is Stiffened by 15-20 C-shaped Partial rings of hyline cartilage, connected to each other by annular ligaments
What is the trachealis and what is its function?
a band of smooth muscle that connects ends of C-shaped tracheal cartilages. It is normally partly contracted (to reduce tracheal lumen size to reduce airflow during quiet breathing)
What is the lung root?
the region where the hilum of each lung is located
What is a hilum and what does it contain?
The orifice on each lung where the bronchus enters. It contains blood vessels, nerves and airways which supply each lung.
what do secondary & tertiary bronchi have that bronchioles do not have?
Cartilage plates that stiffen them to prevent collapse.
List all bronchi that are smaller than secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi;

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles;

Respiratory Bronchioles
What happens in terminal bronchioles during an asthma attack?
The smooth muscle in terminal bronchioles bronchoconstricts, cutting off air flow to the alveoli
Define alveoli, including their histology.
Alveoli are small, air-filled sac. They are sites of gas exchange. They consist of simple squamous epithelium and a thin basal lamina
What is surfactant?
a soap-like lipoprotein that reduces the surface tension of water.

produced by Type II Alveolar cells,

surfactant prevents alveolar collapse.
What does N.R.D.S. stand for, and what causes it?
Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome:
not enough surfactant causes lungs to collapse.

Chemical damage can reduce surfactant production.
How do we move air into our and out of our lungs? What is the name for each movement?
We move air into and out of our lungs by changing air pressure.

moving air into lungs is inspiration;

moving air out of lungs is expiration
What occurs during inspiration? (air entering lungs
1) The Diaphram flattens. this accounts for 2/3 of Thoracic cavity expansion.
2) Ribs move up and out. this account for the remaining 1/3 of Thoracic cavity expansion.
3) As lungs expand, air pressure in the Alveoli decreases so,
4) air enters the lungs due to higher external atmospheric pressure than new, lower pressure in alveoli.
What happens during expiration? (air forced out of lungs
1) The Diaphragm relaxes and the Ribs move down and in.

2) The volume of the Chest cavity and Lungs decreases ↓,
3) this volume decrease creates higher pressure↑ in the alveoli than in the atmosphere↓, which
4) forces air out.
In quiet breathing, what are the muscles of ventilation used during expiration? Which muscle dominates the process, and which assist? Which other event is involved in passive expiration?
Expiration is mostly passive involving the relaxation of the diaphragm, the use of external intercostals and the elastic recoil of the lung.

(the Diaphragm is dominant, relaxing toward half-dome shape
External intercostals are secondary, relaxing.Elastic recoil of the lungs is also involved)
In deep breathing, such as during exercise, what are the muscles of ventilation used during inspiration? Which dominate the process, and which assist?
During deep inspiration, the diaphragm is dominant

but other muscles help, such as External intercostals, Sternocleidomastoid, Pectoralis major, and 9-10 more
In deep breathing, what are the muscles of ventilation used during expiration? Which dominate the process, and which assist?
During deep expiration, the Diaphragm is dominant

but other muscles that help are Abdominal muscles and Internal Intercostals
What controls ventilation?
Levels of respiratory gases in blood, such as High CO₂ levels or very Low oxygen levels.
What is the respiratory pacemaker and where is it located?
It is the Central Pattern Generator (C.P.G.) for respiration;

Located in the Medulla Oblongata and the Pons
What is COPD and what are its symptoms? (symptoms are S,I,CC
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, the progressive narrowing of airways which obstructs them, mostly from Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema (usually from smoking). Symptoms include: Shortness of breath,
Irregular breathing,
and Chronic Cough
What is bronchitis?
Overproduction of mucous by respiratory epithelium
What is emphysema?
inflammation of tissues in smaller passages of lungs;

damage to alveolar exchange surfaces; and

loss of elastic tissues