CD4 Helper Cells; TH, T4 and
CD8 Cytotoxic Cells Tc, T8
What are the two main types of T cells (give all possible names)
activated, B cells differentiate into clone cells (family of cells descended from one) which are plasma cells
What cells descend from B lymphocytes?
> antibodies --> antigen-antibody complexes --> disable antigen.
What do plasma cells release into the plasma?
any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies ("ANTIbody GENerator")
What is an antigen?
Complete antigens have Immunogenicity and Reactivity; incomplete lack Immunogenicity
Describe the difference between complete and incomplete antigens.
Cell-mediated / Antibody-mediated (humoral)
Name the two types of adaptive immunity.
T8 cells recognize infected body cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells
Name the types of cells that may be destroyed in cell-mediated immunity.
they will stimulate T8 and B cells, but that help is absolutely essential to mounting an immune response
How do helper T cells (TH) "help" cytotoxic cells in the immune response?
MHC I; "not ok" piece of the foreign protein (antigen); endogenously
Bacteria A has infec/ed an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .
Which MHC complex is found on the surface of the infected cell? What will this MHC complex display? How does it process and present?
T8; kill abnormal cell by punching holes in it with perforin
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .What type of T cell will detect the foreign antigen? How will the T cell respond to this antigen?
MHC II; The APC; digested pieces of the pathogen, brings to surface of cell; presents endogenously
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .Assume the bacteria in the tissue is engulfed by a macrophage. Which MHC complex is found on the surface of the macrophage?
What will this MHC complex display?
T4; will process & present endogenously
Bacteria A has infected an individual's cells and is also present freely in his/her tissue .Assume the bacteria in the tissue is engulfed by a macrophage. What type of T cell will detect this foreign antigen? How will the T cell respond to this antigen?
Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation
How does an antigen-antibody complex disable antigen? (name a few ways)
occurs after an harmful antigen has
been encountered for the first time IgM
What is the primary immune response?
quicker more effective; occurs after an previously encountered antigen reappears Igm then IgG
What is the secondary immune response?
first Ig released by plasma cells after intitial exposure; occurs late during first exposure, and faster, qucker, & more effective in future encounters
How does the primary immune response differ from the secondary immune response?
happens withing the body by exposure to a trigger of maternal ex=illness/mother to baby
Define naturally acquired immunity
created when body cells are challenged vs from the outside
Describe the difference between passive and active immunity.
ability to provoke immune response by stimulating the production of T cells or specific antibodies
the antigen binds, and must fit snugly varies with type of antigen it binds to
variable region of an antibody is where
determines the class of antibody - IgG, IgA, IgM,
IgD, IgE - and dictates the cells and chemicals it can bind to
constant region of an antibody is where
react with activated T and B cells that are present
incomplete antigen cannot provoke the body into making activated T and B cells, but it can