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DAT Prep Chapter 11.3: Human Immune System
Terms in this set (63)
harmful microorganisms that causes disease
white blood cels
white blood cells found manly in the lymphatic organs (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells) and originate from the bone marrow. T cells mature in thymus while B cells mature in the bone marrow.
innate immune system
is the first line of defense and is known as nonspecific immune response
first layer of innate immunity
consists of thick epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Also mucous membrane to trap pathogens and lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls.
to secrete oil (sebum) as a barrier. Sebum also has antimicrobial properties.
hair-like projections in the respiratory tract that sweep away debris and pathogens
gastric acid that kills microbes due to low pH.
outcompete pathogenic bacteria and fungi
are a type of leukocyte for the first part of inflammatory response known as rally signaling.
1. they sit in the tissue in preparation for injury
2. if there is an injury, they release histamine which dilates blood vessels
3. this increases blood flow and makes vessels more permeable to let immune cells into the tissues
loss of function
permeable capillaries result in fluids leaking into tissues
loss of function
body part with inflammation becomes less usable.
increased blood flow results in a higher temperature
throbbing pain caused by swelling, which puts continuous pressure on nerve endings
increased blood flow causes redness of pain
can occur from the inflammatory response but is controlled by the brain and causes a systematic response to kill pathogens with higher temperatures.
is the process by which cells move from the capillaries to tissues in order to fight pathogens
is the method by which cells move in response to a chemical signal. Immune cells use chemotaxis to move to the tissues.
five main types of leukocytes from highest to lowest in quantity
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas.
phagocytes in innate immunity and make up over half of all leukocytes
b cells, t cells and natural killer cells. B and T cells are part of adaptive immunity and must be activated.
natural killer (NK) cells
are part of innate immunity and attack virally-infected cells + cancerous cells. NK cells use perforin (create holes) and granzyme (stimulate apoptosis) to lyse cells.
are the immature form in blood vessels
are the mature form after diapedesis. can also act as antigen-presenting cells to activate adaptive immunity.
part of innate immunity and have granules that can be released to kill pathogens, especially parasites.
least numerous leukocyte and also contain granules with histamine (vasodilation) and heparin (an anticoagulant to prevent blood clotting). Very similar to mast cells, expect basophils circulate as mature cells while mast cells circulate as immature cells.
are also part of innate immunity and scan tissues using pinocytosis (cell drinking) and phagocytes (cell eating). They act as antigen-presenting cells like macrophages, migrating to the lymph nosed to activate adaptive immunity
are secreted by virally-infected cells to bind to non-infected cells to prepare them for a virus attack. Also interferons help activate dendritic cells.
is a group of approximately 30 proteins that aid immune cells in fighting pathogens. These proteins turn on each other through the complement cascade, which amplifies the complement effects by releasing cytokinesis.
tags antigens for phagocytes
binds to mast cells for increase histamine release
membrane attach complex (MAC)
which pokes holes in pathogens and lyses them
adaptive immune system
a specific immune response
an immunogenic foreign molecule and is the target of the immune response.
What is the most important part of the antigen and why?
epitope and is recognized by the immune cell
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
recognizes self proteins from non-self it's found on the surface of cells. Thus, forge in antigens and foreign MHC will be identified as enemies by the immune system
MHC Class I
a surface molecule present on all nucleated cells, and each genetically different individual will have different MHC I molecule.
have different MHC I may lead to failure and rejection, so immunosuppressants are given to transplant patients.
occur when the immune system attacks self MHC I
MHC Class II
is a surface molecule present on antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages) and is used to present foreign antigens to activate immune cells.
control antibody-mediated immunity (humoral immunity) by managing the production and release of antibodies. They can also act as antigen-presenting cells
B cell receptors (BCRs)
located on B cells and bind to antigen epitopes either free-floating or on APCs. Each B cell has a unique BCR
clonal selection model
describes the developmental of one type of BCR for every B cell.
B cells divide into either plasma cells (antibody-secreting cells) or memory B cells (to be activated later in case of another attack).
are structurally identical to BCRs but freely circulate in blood and lymph. They can tag antigens for phagocytosis, neutralize the antigen by coating it, or activate the complement system.
contain light chains and heavy chains linked by disulphide bonds. It addition, the variable region recognizes different antigens while the constant region is the same for antibodies within the same class.
Class of antibodies
Me And Eve Don't Go
present in a perimetric form and is the largest antibody. The first antibody to be produced and activates the complement system.
present is dimeric form and found most abundantly in bodily secretions. Newborns receive passive immunity through breast milk containing IgA. It also binds pathogens externally, outside of circulation.
monomer that is present on basophils and mast cells as antigens receptors. When bound to an allergen, triggers histamine release and an allergic reaction.
monomer that we have very little information about. Only small amounts are produced.
monomer that is the most abundant antibody in circulation. Also the only antibody that can cross the placenta to give fetus passive immunity. Helps to complement system to cause opsonization (tags antigens and subsequent phagocytosis).
Memory B cells
survive for long time and lay dormant until reactivated by the same antigen that triggered the original clonal expansion. They're the key to vaccinations b/c vaccines cause memory B cell production for later reactivation. After reactivation the cells cause massive antibody production.
control cell-mediated immunity by directly acting on cells instead of sending antibodies out.
T cell receptors (TCRs)
are unique just like BCRs, binding only to one type of antigen per T cell. T cell also undergoes clonal selection just like B cells.
APCs (antigen-presenting cells)
ways antigens may be presented to T cells: MHC I presentation and MHC II presentation
MHC I presentation
T cells differentiate into CD & T cells (cytotoxic T cells), which directly kill infected cells through perforin (pole holes) and granzymes (cause apoptosis). However, T cells are different from natural killer cells because they are more specific and require antigen pressure.
MHC II Presentation
T cells differentiate into CD4T cells (helper T cells), which release cytokines to boost both innate immunity and adaptive immunity. These cytokines help attract innate immune cells and increase proliferation of other T and B cells
refers to the immunity one organism gains from receiving the antibodies from another organism already has that immunity. For example, a fetus gains passive immunity through the placenta (IgG) while a newborn gains passive immunity through breast milk (IgA). The fetus and newborn are referred to as immune-naive because they do not yet have their own active immunity.
refers to the immunity a organism gains from being infected once already by a pathogen.
introduces the antigen or pathogen in a deactivated state to stimulate active immunity, which is referred to as artificial immunity in this case and induces memory B and T cell formation.
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