**fields (8): service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts/entertainment
**levels (6): professional and managerial 1, professional and managerial 2, semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled
REALISTIC - has practical abilities and would prefer to work with machine or tools rather than people; mechanic, farmer, builder, pilot
INVESTIGATIVE - analytical and precise; good with detail; prefers to work with ideas; enjoys problem solving and research; chemist, geologist, biologist, researcher
ARTISTIC - creative ability; uses intuition and imagination for problem solving; musician, artist, interior decorator, write, industrial designer
SOCIAL - good social skills, friendly and enjoys involvement with people and working in teams; nurse, teacher, social worker, counselor
ENTERPRISING - leadership, speaking and negotiating abilities; likes leading others towards the achievement of a goal; salesperson, tv producer, manager, lawyer
CONVENTIONAL - systematic and practical worker, good at following plan and attending to detail; banker, secretary, accountant
A major point of Super's theory is that work / life satisfaction is depended upon the extent of adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality, and values.
1) Career development is a life long process and self-concept is constantly being shaped
2) Career pattern is determined by parent's socioeconomic level, mental ability, personality, and opportunities
3) Work / life satisfaction is depended upon extent of adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality, and values
4) Super / Kidd suggested that "career adaptability" depends on a person's ability to face, pursue, or accept career change.
1. GROWTH (birth-14) - Curiosity, Fantasy, Interest - development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self concepts.
2. EXPLORATION (15-24) - Crystallizing, Specifying, Implementing - a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized; "trying it out" through classes, work experience, hobbies; The crystallization of traits occurs when there is progress toward forming a stable self-concept.
3. ESTABLISHMENT (25-44)- Stabilizing, Consolidating, Advancing - characterized by trail and stabilization through work experiences
4. MAINTENANCE (45-64)- Holding, Updating, Innovating - characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation.
5. DISENGAGEMENT (65+)- Decelerating, Retirement Planning, Retirement Living - characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work output, and eventual retirement.
SELF-CONCEPT - One's view of self that has many elements, such as one's appearance, abilities, personality, gender, values, and place in society. If core elements of self-concept conflict with an occupation, the occupation is rejected.
IMAGES OF OCCUPATIONS - Refer to occupational stereotypes that include personalities of people in different occupations, the work that is done, and the appropriateness of that work for different types of people.
COGNITIVE MAPS OF OCCUPATIONS - These constitute how adolescents and adults distinguish occupations into major dimensions, specifically, masculinity/femininity, occupational prestige level, and field of work.
SOCIAL SPACE - The zone of acceptable alternatives in each person's cognitive map of occupations, or each person's view of where they fit or want to fit in society. Career decision should center around "territories" instead of specific jobs.
Tenets: Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills.
Krumboltz uses Bandura's social learning theory and lists four factors that influence career choice: Genetic endowment and special abilities, Environmental conditions and events, Learning experiences, and Task-approach skills.
Clients need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume that occupations will remain stable. Clients need to expand their capabilities and interests, not base decisions on existing characteristics only.
Career counselors should use cognitive reconstructuring, reframing, role playing, desensitization with phobias, and paradoxical intention.
Anne Roe was the first career specialist to develop a two-dimensional system of occupational classification that utilizes FIELDS and LEVELS.
The 8 occupational "fields" include:
Service, Business, Contact, Organizations, Technology, Outdoor, Science, General Culture, and Arts & Entertainment
The 6 "levels" of skill include:
Professional & Managerial 1, Professional & Managerial 2, Semi-Professional / Small bBsiness, Skilled, Semi-Skilled, and Unskilled.
The 4 main factors that influence career choice:
1. Genetic endowment and special abilities - sex, race, physical appearance, intelligence, abilities, and talents
2. Environmental conditions and events - cultural, social, political, and economic forces beyond our control
3. Instrumental and associative learning experiences
Instrumental= person's behavior leads to a consequence (punishment or reward)
Associative= observational learning, classical conditioning
4. Task approach skills (e.g., self-observation, goal setting and information seeking).
>>Lent, Brown, & Hackett (1996)
Find methods of defining specific mediators from which learning experiences shape and influence career behavior.
Explain how variables (interest, abilities, values) interrelate and influence career outcomes
In SCCT, career interests are regulated by self-efficacy and an outcome expectation, which means people, will form lasting interests in activities when they experience personal competency and positive outcomes. On the contrary, a belief of low personal competency will lead people to avoid activities. Perceived barriers such as those related to gender, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, or family constraints may create negative outcome expectations, even when people have had previous success in the given area.
PREDICTION, DISCRIMINATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION
PREDICTION and DISCRIMINATION are relevant to the content of a client's career choice, MONITORING is relevant to the process of a client's career choice.
In PREDICTION, standardized test data are used to predict a client's success in various areas, such as academic and career behaviors. DISCRIMINATION involves using tests and inventories to help the client learn what occupational and/or academic groups he/she resembles in terms of interests, values, personality traits, etc. MONITORING data are used to identify a client's level of career maturity (i.e., readiness to make a career choice). EVALUATION entails using tests to determine the effectiveness of an intervention (e.g., whether and to what extent intervention goals are being achieved).
DOT (Department of Occupational Titles) was replaced by O*NET- was developed by the US Dept. of Labor and utilizes a 9-digit classification system and lists 20,000 jobs.
OOH (The Occupational Outlook Handbook) - is also developed by the US Dept. of Labor - it describes 250 occupations, describes the nature of work, conditions, opportunities, education and training requirements, advancement potential, job outlook, salary, and related occupations. Easiest to understand.
GOE (The Guide of Occupational Exploration) - Published by US Department Of Labor - Helps persons "explore" jobs that are slanted toward a given "interest' area. The 12 interest areas include: Artistic, Scientific, Plants and Animals, Protective, Mechanical, Industrial, Business detail, Selling, Accommodating, Humanitarian, Leading-influencing, and Physical-performing.