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Chapter 16 People and Empires in the Americas
Terms in this set (28)
Chp. 16 Sec. 1 Aim: How were North American societies linked through culture and economics?
The North American societies were linked together in multiple ways. One of these was through the aspect of respect for the land. The North American groups shared a common respect for land which they believed people could not own. The North American societies also shared common ideas in Religious ideas. Native Americans believed the world was full of spirits. People also had to certain rituals and traditions to live in a society of peace and tranquility. Trade also linked people throughout the regions. Trade was an important factor in the relationship between the societies.
Main ideas Chp. 16
had Section 1: 40,000 - 12,000 yrs. ago, Hunter gatherers moved from Asia to N. America across the Beringia land connection. They adapted to diverse environments. People of the Pacific Northwest used rich resources and hunted whales and gathers food from coastal forests. The Anasazi who lived in Utah, Arizona lived in caves in rocky walls of deep canyons. The people East of the Mississippi river build large mounds using copper/stone which is a natural resource. The Hohokam people irrigated crops and their pottery & baskets showed their connections with Southern Mesoamericans. North American groups had common features. Trade linked people of all regions of North America. Religious ideas were similar across the continent as well. A great respect for the land was shared between the people. Also families were linked together with others who shared a similar ancestor. These were known as clans which were identifies with a totem.
Section 2: 250 AD Maya civilization S. Mexico and N. Central America. Maya built large cities i.e. Tikal and Copan. Independent, ruled by a god king, religious and trade center. They cut themselves to offer blood sacrifice. Killed enemies and used them as a sacrifice. Cities had palaces, temples and pyramids. Maya religion, center of their society was polytheistic with gods for each day. The Maya religion helped with the development of mathematics, astronomy, and calendars. Math included digits of zero, had a very accurate because they observed the sun, moon, and stars. They also advanced in bout 800 writing symbols of glyphs to record historical events. In the 800 the Mayan civilization declined. Warfare between the Mayan city-states which interrupted trade and rove people to the jungles out of the cities.
Section 3: The Mountain Valley of Mexico, mile above sea level has lakes and fertile soil. Teotihuacan, had 150,000 and 200,000 people, trade network center for obsidian, green or black volcanic glass to make sharp weapons. Aztecs gained power. The Aztec empire had around 5-15 million people. Religious was a very important aspect in Aztec life. Priest set rituals for the sun god. In 1502 Emperor Montezuma II had problems with ordering conquered people to give people up for sacrifice. People then rebelled against the Aztecs. The Spanish then arrived.
Section 4: The Inca, united Andes, S. America building on foundations of cultures. They believed rulers had relations to the sun god. The Inca also tried to win loyalty through friendship rather than brute force and fear. Inca had organized system of government. Small groups of people, Ayllu worked together for the common good i.e. built irrigation ditches. Inca also had developments in writing, mathematics, and astronomy. In the Inca society religion was a central role. Then the Spanish arrived they took advantage of Inca weakness to divide and conquer the empire. They also had social grouping.
Essential Question: Why do empires rise and fall?
Empires rise and fall due to many factors. They rise from cultural diffusion through trade. For example the Trade of goods such as salt, flint, feathers, shells, cotton cloth and ornaments. In the Mayan society. Advancements is math, art, technology, astronomy, and many more aided in the rise of these empires. The down fall however, was heavily affected by sudden brutal warfare. Trade halting also allowed for a mass fall in empires as trade is one of the most important aspects of expansion. Cultural diffusion from trade allowed for the advancements (science, art, math, etc.) of an empire. An it also allowed for people of different professions (specialized workers).
A Native American celebration meant to show wealth and divide property among the people
A Native American who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings
a communal village built by Indians in the southwestern United States
A Native Indian culture that flourished in the modern day midwest. They resided in the Mississippi river valley
A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests
an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred
Map Analysis p. 442 North American Culture areas
This is a secondary map of North American Culture areas. The map key states Native American Cultures such as Arctic, Subarctic, Northwest Coast, Plateau
Great Basin, California, Southwest, Great Plains, Northeast, Southeast, and Mesoamerica. I can infer that the cultural diffusion would thrive between the region because of their close proximity to one another. This is significant because it shows how these regions developed based off of one another and how that may have influenced how they are perceived today. They also had different life styles because they were in different regions and they adapted to their environment differently.
Chp. 16 Sec.2 Aim How did the Maya Rise & Fall?
The Maya rose because of numerous factors. one of these includes the United Culture. Having a close knit group of regions allowed for less intense outbreaks and over all more understanding between the societies. Loyalty to the king and Wealth and power in culture also allowed for Maya to rise significantly. The production of more food allowed for a larger population to be fed. Because of the more production of food then more people could worked different specialized jobs and the population would generally increase. The Maya fell because of numerous factors as well. Frequent war fare between the kingdom caused a serious issue and lead to the overthrowing of Maya. The population growing had some positive factors however, the negative factors include that the population growth allowed for the need for more land. The civilization would need to expand to accommodate for all these new generation of people. Also human resource began to funnel into religious events, practices, and/or activities.
the largest ancient Mayan city in the northern part of Guatemala
an unbound manuscript of some ancient classic (as distinguished from a scroll)
Visual Analysis p. 446 Mayan Jade death mask, 7th century A.D.
This is a primary source artifact of the Mayan Jade death mask. This source shows the adaptation to natural resources because Jade was a natural resource. I can infer that this was a sign of wealth and appeal. This is important because it shows what materials were used as a visual representation of wealth.
Chp. 16 Sec. 3 Aim: What were important characteristics of Aztec civilization?
The Aztec civilization was one of several characteristics. The Aztec empire ruled over 5-15 million people. Based on military conquest and collecting tribute from conquered people. In this society government officials, military leaders, and the priests made up the noble class. farmers , craftworks, soldiers, merchants, and Commoners owned land. Lastly, captured slaves. Emperors were seen as gods as well as rulers. Emperor is a god as well as a ruler. Capital city, Tenochtitlan, built on island on a lake. Religion was a very important aspect of the Aztec civilizations culture. Rituals were held by priests especially for the sun god.
A usually black or banded, hard volcanic glass that displays shiny, curved surfaces when fractured and is formed by rapid cooling of lava
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
The last Aztec emperor. Here he is on vacation at the beach, just days before being captured and killed by Cortés in 1520.
Chart Analysis p. 458 Rise and Fall of the Aztecs
This is a secondary source chart of the Rise and Fall of the Aztecs. This chart shows Traits of Civilization, Strength Leading to Power, and Weakness Leading to
Decline" I can infer that the military and religion was very important in the Aztecs way of life. This is important because it shows the most significant aspects of the Aztecs empire influenced their rise, fall, and over all cultural aspects of their lives.
Chp. 16 Sec. 4 Aim: What were characteristics of Inca society?
The Inca society had multiple characteristics. The Inca, Andes, S. America built the foundations of cultures. They believed rulers were in relation to god, especially the sun god. The Inca tried to win loyalty through friendship rather fear and brute force. Inca had an organized system of government. . Families were place in groups of 10, 100, 1,000 and so on, chief ruled each. The Inca government controlled the economy. Records were also kept. The Inca religion played a central role in this society. When the Spanish arrived they took advantage of Inca weakness to divide and conquer the empire.
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
In Incan society, a small community or family group whose members worked together for the common good of the peoples.
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Map Analysis p. 461 South American Culture Areas 100 - 1535 A.D
This is a secondary source map of South American Culture Areas 100 - 1535 A.D. The map key states "Moche, 100-700, Chimú, 1000-1470, Inca, 1438-1535
, and Inca roads. I can infer that the geography of the land may have played a major role in the culture of these regions. This is important because it shows how geography affected these regions and molded them into what they are perceived as today.
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