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Chapter 16 People and Empires in the Americas

Terms in this set (28)

had Section 1: 40,000 - 12,000 yrs. ago, Hunter gatherers moved from Asia to N. America across the Beringia land connection. They adapted to diverse environments. People of the Pacific Northwest used rich resources and hunted whales and gathers food from coastal forests. The Anasazi who lived in Utah, Arizona lived in caves in rocky walls of deep canyons. The people East of the Mississippi river build large mounds using copper/stone which is a natural resource. The Hohokam people irrigated crops and their pottery & baskets showed their connections with Southern Mesoamericans. North American groups had common features. Trade linked people of all regions of North America. Religious ideas were similar across the continent as well. A great respect for the land was shared between the people. Also families were linked together with others who shared a similar ancestor. These were known as clans which were identifies with a totem.

Section 2: 250 AD Maya civilization S. Mexico and N. Central America. Maya built large cities i.e. Tikal and Copan. Independent, ruled by a god king, religious and trade center. They cut themselves to offer blood sacrifice. Killed enemies and used them as a sacrifice. Cities had palaces, temples and pyramids. Maya religion, center of their society was polytheistic with gods for each day. The Maya religion helped with the development of mathematics, astronomy, and calendars. Math included digits of zero, had a very accurate because they observed the sun, moon, and stars. They also advanced in bout 800 writing symbols of glyphs to record historical events. In the 800 the Mayan civilization declined. Warfare between the Mayan city-states which interrupted trade and rove people to the jungles out of the cities.

Section 3: The Mountain Valley of Mexico, mile above sea level has lakes and fertile soil. Teotihuacan, had 150,000 and 200,000 people, trade network center for obsidian, green or black volcanic glass to make sharp weapons. Aztecs gained power. The Aztec empire had around 5-15 million people. Religious was a very important aspect in Aztec life. Priest set rituals for the sun god. In 1502 Emperor Montezuma II had problems with ordering conquered people to give people up for sacrifice. People then rebelled against the Aztecs. The Spanish then arrived.

Section 4: The Inca, united Andes, S. America building on foundations of cultures. They believed rulers had relations to the sun god. The Inca also tried to win loyalty through friendship rather than brute force and fear. Inca had organized system of government. Small groups of people, Ayllu worked together for the common good i.e. built irrigation ditches. Inca also had developments in writing, mathematics, and astronomy. In the Inca society religion was a central role. Then the Spanish arrived they took advantage of Inca weakness to divide and conquer the empire. They also had social grouping.