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59 terms

test

STUDY
PLAY
Most of the growth in you body occurs because your cells
divide
the stage in a cell's life when it is not in the process of dividing is called
interphase
what material in the cell makes up chromosomes?
nucleic acids
what ratio increases when a cell divides into two smaller cells?
surface area to volume
the process of cytokinesis results in
two genetically identical daughter cells
a cell's chromosomes must be duplicated before mitosis occurs so that
each daughter cell gets a full number of chromosomes
binary fission differs from mitosis because the new cells
live independently of the parent cell
if a starfish is cut in half, it can regrow its missing body through
regeneration
which is an example of reproduction
binary fission in unicellular organisms
which sequence is correct for mitosis
chromoesomes form, chromosomes line up, chromosomes separate, nuclei form
which is an example of an acquired trait
ability to read
the unit of heredity that determines a particular trait is known as
a gene
a human female would have which set of sex chromosomes
XX
if one copy of a dominant allele is present in a genotype, then the trait the allele codes for is
expressed in the phenotype
if one parent has two dominant alleles and another parent has two recessive alleles, the offspring will have
the dominant phenotype
cells that contain half the usual number of chromosomes are
gametes
the process that produces haploid (1n) cells is known as
meiosis
what happens when fertilization occurs
two 1n cells combine into a new cell
which does not occur during meiosis
two diploid daughter cells are produced
after mitosis, the number of chromosomes in a daughter cell is
the same as the number in the parent cell
during meiosis, cell divide
twice
one organism produces one or more offspring that are exact duplicates of itself
asexual reproduction
form of asexual reproduction performed by prokaryotes (cells that do not have a well defined nucleus)
binary fission
binary fission occurs when
the parent organism splits in two
both unicellular and muticellular organisms can reproduce by
budding
the process in which an organism develops tiny buds on its body
budding
each bud forms from the parent's cell
so the bud's genetic material is the same as the parent
the process of new tissure growth at sites of a wound or lost limb
regeneration
some single celled organisms like paramecia may reproduce by dividing into two new cells. Which is a characteristic of this kind of reproduction
the new cells are identical to the parent cell
the reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reprodiction
1.growth
2.repair
3.replacement
mitosis cycle ( there are 5 phases to cell replication)
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
different tissues working together to perform a particular function make up
an organ
DNA is located in a membrane bound nucleus of a cell
eukaryotes
an animal cells and plant cells are
eukaryotes
characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-- bound nucleus, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes
prokayotes
bacteria are
prokaryotes
some diseases in humans are caused by genetic mutations. The mutated genes can then be passed from parent to child. Where does the replication of the mutated genes occur in the human cell?
nucleus
the nomal sequence of development and division of a cell
celll cycle
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two new nuclei and is a sexual reproduction
mitosis
muscles need an electrical signal, usually from the brain, to contract. Without a source of energy, the contraction cannot take place. At which structural leel do muscles convert substances from food into energy for movement?
cell
a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a special trait is not completely domiant over the other allele. This result in combined phenotype
incomplete dominance
a reproductive cell having one half the number of chromosomes, capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to prodice the fertilized egg
gametes
states that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed. A gamete will recei e one allele or the other
Law of Segregation
states that two or more paires of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation
Law of Independent Assortment
various forms of the same gene are called
alleles
all of the cells in your hand have
one complete copy of DNA
an expressed characteristic is produced by a pair of hereditary factors known as
ganes
a threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the the transmission of hereditary information
chromosome
how many chromosomes does human have
humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, including two sex chromosomes
the study of heredity, a study of how certain characteristics are passed on from parent to children
genetics
an organisms's traits are determined by
genes
a gene usually consists of a pair of hereditary factors called
alleles
when discussing the physical appearance of an organism er refer to its
phenotype
the genetic makeup of an organism is referred to as its
genotype
what tells us which alleles the organism possesses
genotype
when an organism has two identical alleles for a given trait
homozygous
if an organism has two different alleles for a given trait
heterozygous
particles and waves acan be defined by their unique characteristics, yet they do have similarities. Which of the following is a unique characteristic of a particle
mass
on a hot day warm cans of soda are placed i a cooler containing ice and the container is closed. in which direction does the thermal energy flow
from the soda to the ice