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142 terms

Microbio Exam 1

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mRNA
Which RNA carries the genetic code used for protein synthesis?
mutation
Heritable change in DNA:
transduction
The mechanism by which genes are transferred into bacteria via viruses is called:
restriction enzyme
An enzyme that cuts double stranded DNA at specific nucleotide sequences:
viruses are not composed of cells
In what way do viruses differ from bacteria?
mycoses
Fungal diseases are generally referred to as:
2 strands of nucleotides running antiparallel
DNA is constructed of:
transformation, mutation, transduction, conjugation
Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by:
plague
A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a :
tRNA
This RNA carries amino acid and brings it to the site of protein synthesis:
transcription
DNA is copied to RNA
latent viruses
Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms; these are called:
amplify sections of DNA
The polymerase chain reaction, PCR, is used to:
plasmids
The most common vector used for cloning genes is:
size
Agarose gel electrophoresis separates nucleic acid fragments according to their:
Ames
A quick microbiological test for potential carcinogens was developed by:
stop codon
This codes for the last amino acid:
plants
The Ti plasmid is used as a vector to transfer DNA into:
gene
A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product is called a:
normal flora
The microbes that are regularly found on our body, yet do not apparent harm are called:
replication
This process is needed to ensure that following generations acquire genetic material:
protozoa
The ability to exist as either a trophozoite or a cyst is characteristic of any:
vehicle transmission
Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine.
proviruses
Latent viruses are present in cells as:
all diseases aren't caused by microorganisms
Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because:
LD50
A dose that will kill 50% of the infected individuals:
reservoirs of infection
A sick animal, a hospital, a sick person, a healthy person are:
clone
A population of bacterial cells carrying a desired plasmid:
prion
Scrapie is an example of an infection caused by a:
chitin
All fungi have _________ in their cell wall.
transduction
Which form of genetic exchange requires a virus as vector:
symbiosis
____________ refers to different organisms living in close association.
mutualism
The symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit is termed:
fungi
Mycology is the study of:
hydrogen bond
The strand of DNA are bounded to one another by:
complementary strands
In a double stranded DNA molecule, the amount of C is always equal to the amount of G. What describes this characteristic of DNA molecule?
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA:
endotoxins
___________ are part of the gram-negative cell wall.
restriction enzymes
____________ _____________ are bacterial enzymes that destroy foreign DNA.
release
An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?
droplet transmission
Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze.
where endotoxin is found
On the surface of Gram negative bacteria
vehicle transmission
Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef.
mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the:
fomite
A needlestick:
nosocomial infection
A ________ ________ is a acquired during the course of hospitalization.
vector
A plague transmitted by a flea.
lysogeny
Viral DNA is incorporated into a host DNA
ribozomes
Sites of protein synthesis:
protein
Exotoxins such as botox and others are made of:
fimbriae, ligands, M protein, capsules
Used for attachment in a host:
proteins
A cell that cannot make tRNA, cannot make ______.
translation
Comprise of 3 distinct processes of initiation, elongation, and termination.
cold sores
An example of a latent viral infection:
3
How many nucleotides are in a codon?
commensalism
A relationship in which one partner is benefited and the other is unaffected:
tRNA
Which molecule carries an anticodon?
protein and RNA
Ribosomes are composed of _______ and _______.
True
(T/F) Recombinant DNA is produced when DNA from 2 different species are linked together.
fungi
Yeasts belong to what kingdom?
viroid
What is a naked, infectious piece of RNA called?
interferons
Body's natural antiviral molecule:
prion
Mad cow disease is caused by a:
humans, bacteria, plants
Viruses infect:
endemic
A disease constantly present in a population is called:
vehicle transmission
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue:
parasitism
A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed:
Semmelweis
The doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients:
indirect contact
Fomites are involved in:
transcription
The intermediate process between DNA and protein synthesis. Generates mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.
transposons
Segments of DNA capable of moving from one area in the DNA to another are called:
reservoir of infection
The natural habitat of a pathogen is called:
recombinant DNA
A DNA molecule containing fragments from 2 different sources:
True
(T/F) Portal of entry and portal of exit could be the same for a specific disease.
True
(T/F) Viral envelope is acquired from host cell during viral replication or release.
genome
Total DNA contents of an organism:
plasmid
Extra DNA:
leading strand
Newly synthesized strand that grows towards the replication fork:
primer
Replication begins with a small stretch of RNA:
primase
Lays down the primer
DNA polymerase
Catalyzes the bonding between the 3' hydroxyl group of the primer and the 5' phosphate group of the incoming nucleotide with the concominant hyrdolosis of the terminal 2 phosphate groups.
helicase
At replication fork, __________ unwinds the DNA to expose the single strand.
helicases
_________ are ATP-dependent enzymes that hydrolyze ATP as they move in advance of the replication fork.
single stranding binding proteins
What proteins stabilize single stranded DNA before it forms double stranded DNA?
leading
_________ strand is synthesized continuously.
lagging
_________ strand is synthesized discontinuously.
DNA polymerase
_______ _________ has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity to remove wrong nucleotides that try to make an incorrect insertion.
synthesize, proofread, corrects mistakes
DNA polymerase's jobs (3)
tRNA
_________ are involved in protein synthesis during translation.
ribose, deoxyribose; uracil, thymine; RNA, single stranded
3 key differences between RNA and DNA:
1.) ________ instead of __________
2.) ________ instead of __________
3.) ________ is usually _________ _________
transcription
The synthesis of RNA from DNA template:
mRNA
Template
rRNA and tRNA
Make protein
RNA polymerase
The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA by transcribing DNA into RNA and requires a DNA template; moves 5'-3' direction and doesn't require a primer:
template DNA
__________ ___________ is usually double stranded DNA but only one of the two strands is transcribed for any gene.
cAMP effect
Global regulation
glucose effect
Catabolic regression
carry an amino acid and brings it to the site of protein synthesis; recognize the codon on mRNA
2 features of tRNA
polycistronic mRNA
Type of mRNA that often codes for more than one polypeptide but 2 or more.
unstable
mRNA is ________ unlike tRNA and rRNA.
75
_____% of genes are expressed at all times.
transcription
___________ is highly regulated to minimize energy waste.
transcription
In _________, speficic regions of DNA (genes) are copied to RNA. One region, one gene, no overlaps.
transcription
Every gene has a start and finish point during __________.
initiation, elongation, termination
3 stages of translation:
initiation, elongation
___________ and __________ require energy (GTP)
translation, mRNA
In ________, ________ contains the (CODON) message for protein.
rRNA
________ sequence has great importance in study of evolution.
size of ribosome
_________ _______ _________ is different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
regression
___________ controls the synthetic processes such as aa synthesis; trp operon
translation, tRNA
In __________, ________ delivers aa to the ribosome-mRNA comples.
antibiotics
____________ interfere with protein synthesis of inhibition of translation.
tretracycline
___________ inhibits aa-tRNA binding to ribosome.
erythromycin
__________ binds to ribosome and interfere with elongation process.
AUG
______ is the initiation codon.
UAA, UAG, UGA
_____, _____, _____ are termination codons.
mutation
A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome (rare), heritable
mutagens
Radiation or chemical
ionizing radiation
_________ __________ induces breaks in chromosomes.
nonionizing radiation
_________ __________ induces thymine dimers.
nucleotide analogs
________ __________ disrupt DNA and RNA replication and cause point mutations.
nucleotide-altering chemicals
_______-_________ ________ result in base pair substitution mutations and missense mutations.
frameshift mutagens
___________ _________ result in nonsense mutations.
ames test
_____ _____ uses bacterial genetics to help screen for substances that might cause cancer; looks for damage to bacteria DNA by looking for metabolic activity being affected by damage (mutation) to DNA
carcinogens
Cause cancer by causing mutations in DNA
DNA polymerase
Finds damages in DNA, error or misplaced bases, removes them, and fills the gap with the correct base
recombinants
Cells with DNA molecules that contain new nucleotide sequences:
vertical gene transfer
Organisms replicate their genomes and provide copies to their decedents
horizontal gene transfer
Donor contributes part of genome to recipient; 3 types
transformation, transduction, bacterial conjugation
3 types of horizontal gene transfer
3 goals of recombinant DNA technology
(1) eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits, (2) combine beneficial traits of 2 or more organisms, (3) create organisms that synthesize products humans need.
reverse transcriptase
Isolated from retroviruses (RNA genomes); uses RNA template to transcribe molecule of cDNA, complementary to RNA; easier to isolate mRNA molecule for desired protein first; mRNA in eukaryotes can be cloned into prokaryotic cells
vector
Nucleic acid molecule that delivers a gene into a cell; include viral genomes, transposons, and plasmids
gene libraries
A collection of bacterial or phage clones; each contains a portion of the genetic material of interest; each clone contains one gene of an organism's genome; may contain all genes of a single chromosome; may contain set of cDNA complementary to mRNA
electrophoresis
Involves separating molecules based on electrical charge, size, and shape; allows scientists to isolate DNA of interest
electroporation, protoplast fusion, injection
Artifical methods of inserting DNA into a cell
protozoa
All unicellular, eukaryotes, found in water, soil, and as a normal microbiota of animals; 2 forms: cyst vs. trophozite; classified based on mode of locomotion; some are pathogens
fungi
some are pathogens, most are decomposers; classified according to the type of sexual spores they produce; 2 forms: yeast and mold; decompose dead organisms and recycle their nutrients; produce antibiotics
algae
Unicellular photosynthetic organisms, have sexual reproductive structure; found in aquatic environments; recycle CO2 and produce O2
viruses
Cause many infections, cannot carry out any metabolic pathway, neither grow nor respond to the environment, no cytoplasmic membrane organelles, have extracellular (dormant) state and intracellular states (active form)
extracellular state
Called viron, protein coat surrounding nucleic acid, nucleocapsid
intracellular state
Capsid removed virus exists as nucleic acid