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Which RNA carries the genetic code used for protein synthesis?


Heritable change in DNA:


The mechanism by which genes are transferred into bacteria via viruses is called:

restriction enzyme

An enzyme that cuts double stranded DNA at specific nucleotide sequences:

viruses are not composed of cells

In what way do viruses differ from bacteria?


Fungal diseases are generally referred to as:

2 strands of nucleotides running antiparallel

DNA is constructed of:

transformation, mutation, transduction, conjugation

Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by:


A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a :


This RNA carries amino acid and brings it to the site of protein synthesis:


DNA is copied to RNA

latent viruses

Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms; these are called:

amplify sections of DNA

The polymerase chain reaction, PCR, is used to:


The most common vector used for cloning genes is:


Agarose gel electrophoresis separates nucleic acid fragments according to their:


A quick microbiological test for potential carcinogens was developed by:

stop codon

This codes for the last amino acid:


The Ti plasmid is used as a vector to transfer DNA into:


A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product is called a:

normal flora

The microbes that are regularly found on our body, yet do not apparent harm are called:


This process is needed to ensure that following generations acquire genetic material:


The ability to exist as either a trophozoite or a cyst is characteristic of any:

vehicle transmission

Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine.


Latent viruses are present in cells as:

all diseases aren't caused by microorganisms

Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because:


A dose that will kill 50% of the infected individuals:

reservoirs of infection

A sick animal, a hospital, a sick person, a healthy person are:


A population of bacterial cells carrying a desired plasmid:


Scrapie is an example of an infection caused by a:


All fungi have _________ in their cell wall.


Which form of genetic exchange requires a virus as vector:


____________ refers to different organisms living in close association.


The symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit is termed:


Mycology is the study of:

hydrogen bond

The strand of DNA are bounded to one another by:

complementary strands

In a double stranded DNA molecule, the amount of C is always equal to the amount of G. What describes this characteristic of DNA molecule?

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA:


___________ are part of the gram-negative cell wall.

restriction enzymes

____________ _____________ are bacterial enzymes that destroy foreign DNA.


An envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?

droplet transmission

Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze.

where endotoxin is found

On the surface of Gram negative bacteria

vehicle transmission

Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef.

mucous membranes of the respiratory tract

The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the:


A needlestick:

nosocomial infection

A ________ ________ is a acquired during the course of hospitalization.


A plague transmitted by a flea.


Viral DNA is incorporated into a host DNA


Sites of protein synthesis:


Exotoxins such as botox and others are made of:

fimbriae, ligands, M protein, capsules

Used for attachment in a host:


A cell that cannot make tRNA, cannot make ______.


Comprise of 3 distinct processes of initiation, elongation, and termination.

cold sores

An example of a latent viral infection:


How many nucleotides are in a codon?


A relationship in which one partner is benefited and the other is unaffected:


Which molecule carries an anticodon?

protein and RNA

Ribosomes are composed of _______ and _______.


(T/F) Recombinant DNA is produced when DNA from 2 different species are linked together.


Yeasts belong to what kingdom?


What is a naked, infectious piece of RNA called?


Body's natural antiviral molecule:


Mad cow disease is caused by a:

humans, bacteria, plants

Viruses infect:


A disease constantly present in a population is called:

vehicle transmission

A cold transmitted by a facial tissue:


A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed:


The doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients:

indirect contact

Fomites are involved in:


The intermediate process between DNA and protein synthesis. Generates mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.


Segments of DNA capable of moving from one area in the DNA to another are called:

reservoir of infection

The natural habitat of a pathogen is called:

recombinant DNA

A DNA molecule containing fragments from 2 different sources:


(T/F) Portal of entry and portal of exit could be the same for a specific disease.


(T/F) Viral envelope is acquired from host cell during viral replication or release.


Total DNA contents of an organism:


Extra DNA:

leading strand

Newly synthesized strand that grows towards the replication fork:


Replication begins with a small stretch of RNA:


Lays down the primer

DNA polymerase

Catalyzes the bonding between the 3' hydroxyl group of the primer and the 5' phosphate group of the incoming nucleotide with the concominant hyrdolosis of the terminal 2 phosphate groups.


At replication fork, __________ unwinds the DNA to expose the single strand.


_________ are ATP-dependent enzymes that hydrolyze ATP as they move in advance of the replication fork.

single stranding binding proteins

What proteins stabilize single stranded DNA before it forms double stranded DNA?


_________ strand is synthesized continuously.


_________ strand is synthesized discontinuously.

DNA polymerase

_______ _________ has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity to remove wrong nucleotides that try to make an incorrect insertion.

synthesize, proofread, corrects mistakes

DNA polymerase's jobs (3)


_________ are involved in protein synthesis during translation.

ribose, deoxyribose; uracil, thymine; RNA, single stranded

3 key differences between RNA and DNA:
1.) ________ instead of __________
2.) ________ instead of __________
3.) ________ is usually _________ _________


The synthesis of RNA from DNA template:



rRNA and tRNA

Make protein

RNA polymerase

The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA by transcribing DNA into RNA and requires a DNA template; moves 5'-3' direction and doesn't require a primer:

template DNA

__________ ___________ is usually double stranded DNA but only one of the two strands is transcribed for any gene.

cAMP effect

Global regulation

glucose effect

Catabolic regression

carry an amino acid and brings it to the site of protein synthesis; recognize the codon on mRNA

2 features of tRNA

polycistronic mRNA

Type of mRNA that often codes for more than one polypeptide but 2 or more.


mRNA is ________ unlike tRNA and rRNA.


_____% of genes are expressed at all times.


___________ is highly regulated to minimize energy waste.


In _________, speficic regions of DNA (genes) are copied to RNA. One region, one gene, no overlaps.


Every gene has a start and finish point during __________.

initiation, elongation, termination

3 stages of translation:

initiation, elongation

___________ and __________ require energy (GTP)

translation, mRNA

In ________, ________ contains the (CODON) message for protein.


________ sequence has great importance in study of evolution.

size of ribosome

_________ _______ _________ is different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.


___________ controls the synthetic processes such as aa synthesis; trp operon

translation, tRNA

In __________, ________ delivers aa to the ribosome-mRNA comples.


____________ interfere with protein synthesis of inhibition of translation.


___________ inhibits aa-tRNA binding to ribosome.


__________ binds to ribosome and interfere with elongation process.


______ is the initiation codon.


_____, _____, _____ are termination codons.


A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome (rare), heritable


Radiation or chemical

ionizing radiation

_________ __________ induces breaks in chromosomes.

nonionizing radiation

_________ __________ induces thymine dimers.

nucleotide analogs

________ __________ disrupt DNA and RNA replication and cause point mutations.

nucleotide-altering chemicals

_______-_________ ________ result in base pair substitution mutations and missense mutations.

frameshift mutagens

___________ _________ result in nonsense mutations.

ames test

_____ _____ uses bacterial genetics to help screen for substances that might cause cancer; looks for damage to bacteria DNA by looking for metabolic activity being affected by damage (mutation) to DNA


Cause cancer by causing mutations in DNA

DNA polymerase

Finds damages in DNA, error or misplaced bases, removes them, and fills the gap with the correct base


Cells with DNA molecules that contain new nucleotide sequences:

vertical gene transfer

Organisms replicate their genomes and provide copies to their decedents

horizontal gene transfer

Donor contributes part of genome to recipient; 3 types

transformation, transduction, bacterial conjugation

3 types of horizontal gene transfer

3 goals of recombinant DNA technology

(1) eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits, (2) combine beneficial traits of 2 or more organisms, (3) create organisms that synthesize products humans need.

reverse transcriptase

Isolated from retroviruses (RNA genomes); uses RNA template to transcribe molecule of cDNA, complementary to RNA; easier to isolate mRNA molecule for desired protein first; mRNA in eukaryotes can be cloned into prokaryotic cells


Nucleic acid molecule that delivers a gene into a cell; include viral genomes, transposons, and plasmids

gene libraries

A collection of bacterial or phage clones; each contains a portion of the genetic material of interest; each clone contains one gene of an organism's genome; may contain all genes of a single chromosome; may contain set of cDNA complementary to mRNA


Involves separating molecules based on electrical charge, size, and shape; allows scientists to isolate DNA of interest

electroporation, protoplast fusion, injection

Artifical methods of inserting DNA into a cell


All unicellular, eukaryotes, found in water, soil, and as a normal microbiota of animals; 2 forms: cyst vs. trophozite; classified based on mode of locomotion; some are pathogens


some are pathogens, most are decomposers; classified according to the type of sexual spores they produce; 2 forms: yeast and mold; decompose dead organisms and recycle their nutrients; produce antibiotics


Unicellular photosynthetic organisms, have sexual reproductive structure; found in aquatic environments; recycle CO2 and produce O2


Cause many infections, cannot carry out any metabolic pathway, neither grow nor respond to the environment, no cytoplasmic membrane organelles, have extracellular (dormant) state and intracellular states (active form)

extracellular state

Called viron, protein coat surrounding nucleic acid, nucleocapsid

intracellular state

Capsid removed virus exists as nucleic acid

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