Create an account
transformation, mutation, transduction, conjugation
Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by:
Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms; these are called:
The microbes that are regularly found on our body, yet do not apparent harm are called:
In a double stranded DNA molecule, the amount of C is always equal to the amount of G. What describes this characteristic of DNA molecule?
mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the:
The doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients:
The intermediate process between DNA and protein synthesis. Generates mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.
Catalyzes the bonding between the 3' hydroxyl group of the primer and the 5' phosphate group of the incoming nucleotide with the concominant hyrdolosis of the terminal 2 phosphate groups.
_________ are ATP-dependent enzymes that hydrolyze ATP as they move in advance of the replication fork.
single stranding binding proteins
What proteins stabilize single stranded DNA before it forms double stranded DNA?
_______ _________ has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity to remove wrong nucleotides that try to make an incorrect insertion.
ribose, deoxyribose; uracil, thymine; RNA, single stranded
3 key differences between RNA and DNA:
1.) ________ instead of __________
2.) ________ instead of __________
3.) ________ is usually _________ _________
The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA by transcribing DNA into RNA and requires a DNA template; moves 5'-3' direction and doesn't require a primer:
__________ ___________ is usually double stranded DNA but only one of the two strands is transcribed for any gene.
carry an amino acid and brings it to the site of protein synthesis; recognize the codon on mRNA
2 features of tRNA
In _________, speficic regions of DNA (genes) are copied to RNA. One region, one gene, no overlaps.
_______-_________ ________ result in base pair substitution mutations and missense mutations.
_____ _____ uses bacterial genetics to help screen for substances that might cause cancer; looks for damage to bacteria DNA by looking for metabolic activity being affected by damage (mutation) to DNA
Finds damages in DNA, error or misplaced bases, removes them, and fills the gap with the correct base
3 goals of recombinant DNA technology
(1) eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits, (2) combine beneficial traits of 2 or more organisms, (3) create organisms that synthesize products humans need.
Isolated from retroviruses (RNA genomes); uses RNA template to transcribe molecule of cDNA, complementary to RNA; easier to isolate mRNA molecule for desired protein first; mRNA in eukaryotes can be cloned into prokaryotic cells
Nucleic acid molecule that delivers a gene into a cell; include viral genomes, transposons, and plasmids
A collection of bacterial or phage clones; each contains a portion of the genetic material of interest; each clone contains one gene of an organism's genome; may contain all genes of a single chromosome; may contain set of cDNA complementary to mRNA
Involves separating molecules based on electrical charge, size, and shape; allows scientists to isolate DNA of interest
All unicellular, eukaryotes, found in water, soil, and as a normal microbiota of animals; 2 forms: cyst vs. trophozite; classified based on mode of locomotion; some are pathogens
some are pathogens, most are decomposers; classified according to the type of sexual spores they produce; 2 forms: yeast and mold; decompose dead organisms and recycle their nutrients; produce antibiotics
Unicellular photosynthetic organisms, have sexual reproductive structure; found in aquatic environments; recycle CO2 and produce O2
Cause many infections, cannot carry out any metabolic pathway, neither grow nor respond to the environment, no cytoplasmic membrane organelles, have extracellular (dormant) state and intracellular states (active form)
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together