How can we help?
You can also find more resources in our
Select a category
Something is confusing
Something is broken
I have a suggestion
What is your email?
What is 1 + 3?
Cooper Chapter 19-Shaping
systematic and differentially reinforces successive approx. to a terminal behavior. Acquire new behaviors
members of a response class are reinforced and other behaviors are not
2 components-differentially reinforce behaviors that resemble the terminal behavior. Carefully changing the criterion for reinforcement-increase in desired bx and decrease in non terminal bx
Dimensions of behavior that can be shaped
topography (form), frequency, latency, duration, amplitude
An intermediate behavior. Prerequisite to terminal behavior...same response topography
Shaping across topographies
across topography of behavior changes during shaping. Still members of the same response class
Shaping within topographies
Topography of behavior remains constant. Another measurable dimension is changed (duration, latency)
Pros of shaping
Teaches new behaviors, positive approach, can be combined with other procedures
Cons of shaping
can be time consuming, progress isn't always linear and may be erratic, requires a skillful trainer, can be misapplied...can accidently shape harmful behaviors
shaping vs. fading
both change behavior gradually. fading is antecedent...shaping changes response requirements
increasing efficacy of shaping
combine with an SD...prompt...verbal cue, physical guidance, models
Guidelines for shaping
what is behavior and how far are we from it? How long will it take? what is the availability of staff and resources
Must define terminal behavior before shaping
look at response class...know what approximations are part of the behavior....
Eliminate distractions...proceed in gradual stages, limit approximations at each level, continue reinforcement after behavior is achieved