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systematic and differentially reinforces successive approx. to a terminal behavior. Acquire new behaviors

Differential reinforcement

members of a response class are reinforced and other behaviors are not

response differentiation

2 components-differentially reinforce behaviors that resemble the terminal behavior. Carefully changing the criterion for reinforcement-increase in desired bx and decrease in non terminal bx

Dimensions of behavior that can be shaped

topography (form), frequency, latency, duration, amplitude

Successive approximations

An intermediate behavior. Prerequisite to terminal behavior...same response topography

Shaping across topographies

across topography of behavior changes during shaping. Still members of the same response class

Shaping within topographies

Topography of behavior remains constant. Another measurable dimension is changed (duration, latency)

Pros of shaping

Teaches new behaviors, positive approach, can be combined with other procedures

Cons of shaping

can be time consuming, progress isn't always linear and may be erratic, requires a skillful trainer, can be misapplied...can accidently shape harmful behaviors

shaping vs. fading

both change behavior gradually. fading is antecedent...shaping changes response requirements

increasing efficacy of shaping

combine with an SD...prompt...verbal cue, physical guidance, models

Guidelines for shaping

what is behavior and how far are we from it? How long will it take? what is the availability of staff and resources

Must define terminal behavior before shaping

look at response class...know what approximations are part of the behavior....

Implementing shaping

Eliminate distractions...proceed in gradual stages, limit approximations at each level, continue reinforcement after behavior is achieved

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