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useful information to determine during a lameness exam includes

better or worse after exercise
better or worse after resting
injury occur in the day or night

regarding bobbing of the head during gait assessment

will RAISE head on SORE leg

when the owner noticed the problem is always the same time it began


information the CVT will gather to help vet determine lamesness


when performing a physical exam for lameness

examine all legs, not just sore leg

calcium deficient diests and diests with poor Ca to Phos ratio can contribute to

pathological fractures
rubber jaw
hip dysplasia

most common cause of bone fracture is


a comminuted fracture is

bone is broken in multiple places

in a compound fracture

the skin is penetrated

a fracture of the femoral head or neck

will not heal on its own and requires some form of surgical intervention

fractures to the skull,jaw or head

may be surgically repaired depending on their location and severity

repair options for fractures include

splints and casts
pinning and screwing
plating/circlage wire

regarding any orthopedic surgery

standartd of care

most common orthopedic injury in dogs is

cruciate tear/sprain (ACL)

surgical tx of UAP

removal of fragment

non-weight bearing or toe touching in a hind leg is suspicious for


regarding carpus valgus

it may be seen as a sequelae to HOD

tx of ACL includes

rest and NSAIDS
extracapsular stabilization
tibial plateau leveling osteoectomy
intraarticular stabilization


seen in you, small breed dogs
is an avascular necrosis of the femoral head

tx of legg perthes dz

femoral head ostectomy

majority of dogs with ACL

will rupture the other at some point

femoral head ostectomy work because

relieves pain
sometimes only viable option
the strong hip muscles hold the leg in place


failure of cartilage to calcify

OCD occurs in

scapulohumeral joint

tx of OCD

rest and NSAIDS
arthrotomy and curettage of lesion

join mouse

piece of loose cartilage within a joint capsule

HOD occurs

at the epiphysis of long bones

HOD is

inflammation and proliferative dz of the bone


can be permanently crippling
dx by rads
may be severe enough to require euthanasia
may have a viral or infectious origin


large breed dogs
generally over 50#

CHD is malformation of

femoral head
femoral neck

CHD is cause by

enviormental factors

CHD in a young dog

progressive dz and dz will worsen with age

degree of lameness is a good indicator of the degree of CHD present


tx of CHD

femoral head ostectomy
total hip replacement

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