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Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Democratic nominee for the 1932 election; distant cousin of famous Teddy Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt

the most active First Lady ever; wife of FDR

Al Smith

NY governor that ran against FDR for the Democratic nomination in 1932

brain trust

the group of advisors to Franklin Roosevelt during his presidential administration

Happy Days are Here Again

slogan of the Democrats in the 1932 election; made into a song

banking holiday

initiated by FDR; closed banks to solve the issues of bank closures; banks could not open until they were stable; intended to restore faith in the banks; March 6, 1933

Hundred Days

the Congress that passed many essentials of the New Deal "three R's"; stressed public reliance on the banking system; first 100 super productive days of FDR's presidency

3 R's

by FDR; a plan to bring about the recovery of the United States from the effects of the Great Depression: Relief-relieve the suffering of those hit by the depression, Recovery- help the economy recover, and Reform-reforms areas that caused the depression

fireside chats

a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin to formally explain the economic situation to average Americans

alphabet agencies

at least 100 offices were created during Roosevelt's terms of office as part of the New Deal

Huey P. "Kingfish" Long

a Senator of Louisiana; a Democrat; Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936; he started the "Share Our Wealth" program which promised to make "Every Man A King"

Dr. Francis E. Townsend

a retired physician whose savings had recently been wiped out; best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan,"

Father Charles Coughlin

"microphone messiah"; a Catholic priest in Michigan who began broadcasting in 1930 and whose slogan was "Social Justice"; anti New Deal; anti-Semitic

Frances Perkins

Secretary of Labor; America's first woman cabinet member

Mary McLeod Bethune

director of the Office of Minority Affairs in the National Youth Administration; served as the highest ranking African American in the Roosevelt administration

Dust Bowl

the prairie lands from eastern Colorado to western Missouri where severe dust storms caused major ecological and agricultural damage


Oklahomans that are Dust Bowl refugees that trekked to Southern California

John Steinbeck

wrote The Grapes of Wrath that depicted the Dust Bowl

The Grapes of Wrath

a bestselling novel by John Steinbeck; depicted the Dust Bowl

John Collier

Commissioner of Indian Affairs; wanted to reverse what was done by the Dawes Act; promoted the Indian Reorganization Act

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions; also helped to stop the loss of Indian lands and revived tribes' interest in their identity and culture

Truth in Securities Act

(Federal Securities Act); required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

John L. Lewis

in the presidency of the United Mine Workers of America; founded the Committee for Industrial Organization, later reconstituted as the Congress of Industrial Organizations

Congress of Industrial Organization

founded by John L. Lewis ; to unite all industrial workers in a powerful bloc of "big labor" to stand up to "big business"

sit down strike

strikers refused to strike by sitting down at posts

Alfred M. Landon

governor of Kansas; Republican nominee for the 1936 election; ran against FDR

20th amendment

cut the lame-duck period down to 6 weeks

court packing incident

FDR proposed that the president be authorized to appoint to the Supreme Court an additional justice for each current justice who was older than about 70 yrs old; everyone was outraged

John Maynard Keynes

British economist; influenced the New Deal; developed Keynesianism

deficit spending

spending exceeds income


deficit spending was acceptable because in difficult times the government needed to spend well above its tax revenues in order to initiate economic growth

Emergency Banking Act

when FDR declared a bank holiday; to restore faith in banks

Glass-Steagall Act

created the FDIC to make people trust banks again

Tennessee Valley Authority

hired thousands of people from one of the poorest regions (Tennessee Valley) to do public projects; brought electricity to the region

Civilian Conservation Corps

employed young men on projects on federal lands and paid their families small monthly sums

National Recovery Administration

helped each industry set codes for wages, hours of work, levels of production and prices of finished goods; guaranteed reasonable profits for businessmen and fair wages and hours for laborers

Wagner Act

guaranteed a worker's right to join a union and a union's right to bargain; outlawed unfair business practices

Social Security Act

created a federal insurance program; made monthly payments to retired people over 65, unemployed, disabled

Works Progress Administration

spent billions to provide people with jobs; built public facilities like schools, supported the arts

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