apush ch. 33

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic nominee for the 1932 election; distant cousin of famous Teddy Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
the most active First Lady ever; wife of FDR
Al Smith
NY governor that ran against FDR for the Democratic nomination in 1932
brain trust
the group of advisors to Franklin Roosevelt during his presidential administration
Happy Days are Here Again
slogan of the Democrats in the 1932 election; made into a song
banking holiday
initiated by FDR; closed banks to solve the issues of bank closures; banks could not open until they were stable; intended to restore faith in the banks; March 6, 1933
Hundred Days
the Congress that passed many essentials of the New Deal "three R's"; stressed public reliance on the banking system; first 100 super productive days of FDR's presidency
3 R's
by FDR; a plan to bring about the recovery of the United States from the effects of the Great Depression: Relief-relieve the suffering of those hit by the depression, Recovery- help the economy recover, and Reform-reforms areas that caused the depression
fireside chats
a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin to formally explain the economic situation to average Americans
alphabet agencies
at least 100 offices were created during Roosevelt's terms of office as part of the New Deal
Huey P. "Kingfish" Long
a Senator of Louisiana; a Democrat; Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936; he started the "Share Our Wealth" program which promised to make "Every Man A King"
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
a retired physician whose savings had recently been wiped out; best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan,"
Father Charles Coughlin
"microphone messiah"; a Catholic priest in Michigan who began broadcasting in 1930 and whose slogan was "Social Justice"; anti New Deal; anti-Semitic
Frances Perkins
Secretary of Labor; America's first woman cabinet member
Mary McLeod Bethune
director of the Office of Minority Affairs in the National Youth Administration; served as the highest ranking African American in the Roosevelt administration
Dust Bowl
the prairie lands from eastern Colorado to western Missouri where severe dust storms caused major ecological and agricultural damage
Oklahomans that are Dust Bowl refugees that trekked to Southern California
John Steinbeck
wrote The Grapes of Wrath that depicted the Dust Bowl
The Grapes of Wrath
a bestselling novel by John Steinbeck; depicted the Dust Bowl
John Collier
Commissioner of Indian Affairs; wanted to reverse what was done by the Dawes Act; promoted the Indian Reorganization Act
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions; also helped to stop the loss of Indian lands and revived tribes' interest in their identity and culture
Truth in Securities Act
(Federal Securities Act); required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
John L. Lewis
in the presidency of the United Mine Workers of America; founded the Committee for Industrial Organization, later reconstituted as the Congress of Industrial Organizations
Congress of Industrial Organization
founded by John L. Lewis ; to unite all industrial workers in a powerful bloc of "big labor" to stand up to "big business"
sit down strike
strikers refused to strike by sitting down at posts
Alfred M. Landon
governor of Kansas; Republican nominee for the 1936 election; ran against FDR
20th amendment
cut the lame-duck period down to 6 weeks
court packing incident
FDR proposed that the president be authorized to appoint to the Supreme Court an additional justice for each current justice who was older than about 70 yrs old; everyone was outraged
John Maynard Keynes
British economist; influenced the New Deal; developed Keynesianism
deficit spending
spending exceeds income
deficit spending was acceptable because in difficult times the government needed to spend well above its tax revenues in order to initiate economic growth
Emergency Banking Act
when FDR declared a bank holiday; to restore faith in banks
Glass-Steagall Act
created the FDIC to make people trust banks again
Tennessee Valley Authority
hired thousands of people from one of the poorest regions (Tennessee Valley) to do public projects; brought electricity to the region
Civilian Conservation Corps
employed young men on projects on federal lands and paid their families small monthly sums
National Recovery Administration
helped each industry set codes for wages, hours of work, levels of production and prices of finished goods; guaranteed reasonable profits for businessmen and fair wages and hours for laborers
Wagner Act
guaranteed a worker's right to join a union and a union's right to bargain; outlawed unfair business practices
Social Security Act
created a federal insurance program; made monthly payments to retired people over 65, unemployed, disabled
Works Progress Administration
spent billions to provide people with jobs; built public facilities like schools, supported the arts