22 terms

Cells Chapter 1

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cells
the basic unit of all living things
cell theory
developed by scientists to explain the structure of all living things; states that all living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic unit of all living things and that all new cells are produced from exisitng cells
cell membrane
the structure that controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell
cell wall
found only in plant cells, it give the rigid shape to the cell
chloroplasts
a chemical found only in plant cells that enables plants to store solar energy
chromosomes
structures inside the nucleus that are made up of genes
cytoplasm
watery gel inside a cell
mitochondria
organelles in which energy is released from food
nuclear membrane
allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus
nucleus
controls all cell activities
vacuole
spaces in the cytoplasm where food and chemicals are stored
diffusion
the tendency of a substance to move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a membrane
active transport
the movement of materials through the cell membrane
photosynthesis
the process by which light energy is used to make food
cell respiration
the process of using oxygen to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules
fermentation
the process of breaking down sugar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol or lactic acid
organ
a group of tissues that function together to do a specific job
mitosis
cell division
tissues
groups of specialized cells that work together to do a specific job
cell differentiation
specialization of cells
organ system
a group of organs that work together to do a job