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Chapter 13: European State Consolidations in the 17th and 18th centuries
Definitions for terms found in "The Heritage of the World" text book by Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner
Terms in this set (64)
William III of Orange
He was the governor (stradtholder) of Holland. He with his wife Mary, the protestant daughter of James were invited ' for the protestant faith and free parliament'. In 1688 the glorious revolution was bloodless.James II fled to France to the court of Louis XIV. and William led his army against the Catholic 'jacobites' of Ireland.
Hereditary chief executive--William III of Orange
Dutch East Indies Company
Dutch founded (1602) commercial enterprises to transport the riches of India, Indonesia and Indochina to Europe. It was the world's first multinational corporation and the first one to issue stocks for its shareholders. It was one of the most successful capitalist organisations of the seventeenth century, replacing the Portuguese in South Africa and India, having a private army of 10000 soldiers and 40 warships and 150 merchants ships, producing huge profits.
- England had this type of monarchy. England's attempt to make an economy that wasn't dependant on an outside source failed under this type of government. They had a political body called parliament, which they ruled through. By having parliament, they threatened their own power by giving some of it to them. The monarchy in England was strong coming from the forty-five year of Queen Elizabeth, so the parliament rarely met. This system however made the king and/or queen less powerful, and in some cases less successful.
Any form of government in which the ruler has nearly complete power, unrestrained by law or other governing bodies.
Scottish kings of Scotland and England
James VI of Scotland
James I of england. divine right of kings. king james bible.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
Wanted to impose Anglican episcopacy system on Scotland and make people follow the "book of common prayer". This started english civil war. Charles I supported him. Was executed for treason.
(1637) The Scottish rebelled in Edinburgh after Charles I and Bishop Laud tried to force their religion on the Scots in the Book of Common Prayer. It was used by Parliament to push its revolutionary agenda on the King.
(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament
English Civil War
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
The Restoration: 1660
• Charles II brought back as a Ltd Monarch, Parliament powerful:
1. The royal court system was gone
2. The king could not interfere w/ the work of Parliament: He had to accept its decrees as law
3. The king could raise no tax money w/o the consent of Parliament
4. Real power in the hands of the gentry leaders of Parliament. 5. The king forced to choose nearly all of his ministers from the gentry.
6. Parliament had the power to approve nearly all royal policy; king had to submit his decisions for parliamentary approval or risk strong opposition & the cutoff of funds
7. The king had become responsible to Parliament
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
A series of laws passed by extreme royalists in Parliament that excluded Roman catholics, presbyterians, and Independents from politics and religious life of England; These laws imposed penalties for attending non-Anglican worship services, required strict adherence to the Book of Common Prayer and the 39 Articles, and demanded oaths of allegiance to the Anglican Church from all ppl serving in local gov.; these laws were passed b/c Charles II wanted to allow Catholics and Puritans to worship freely, as long as they stayed faithful to the throne.
Treaty of Dover
In 1670, England and France kings (Charles II and Louis XIV) hada secret meeting and allied against the Dutch, as long as Charles promised to announce his conversion to Catholicism to England.
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
William III and Mary II
Ruled after the glorious revolution, made a Parliamentary/Constitutional monarchy
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Toleration act of 1689
Granted Puritans the right of free public worship. Marked a turning point in English history because few english citzens would ever again be persecuted for religion
Elector of Hanover and the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727 (1660-1727)
regarded as the first British Prime Minister, his source of power was the King rather than the Parliament
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715). He was also called the "Sun King."
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
most important advisor of Louis XV, trying to help stablize France, try to isolate France, so can work on economy, debt because nobles were not paying taxes, greates failure was when France got involved in the War of Austrian Succession (last year of life), England was able to isolate because island (trying to copy England)
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's and Mazarin's authority; they were unable to overthrow Mazarin.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
French Bishop, believed in divine right absolutism
French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade
the special rights of the French crown over the Church. It gave the French crown control over the appointment of bishops and deprived the pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
Movement within the seventeenth-century Catholic Church. It opposed the Jesuits and advocated that humans could only achieve salvation through divine grace, not through good works.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
1685 by Louis XIV in an attempt to control religion
War of the Spanish Succession
The war that resulted from the heirless death of Charles II; in order to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns, the Grand Alliance declared war on France and the French.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
The Mississippi Bubble
Financial scandal in France involving the Mississippi company
law courts in France, each being supreme for a certain area of the country. Upheld certain "fundamental laws" which they said the king could not overstep - and they often refused to uphold royal edicts which they declared to be unconstitutional. Beneath surface, France still very composite. Different "local liberties"-> 300 different regional systems of law. No uniformity of codes or taxes.
The legislative assembly of the Polish nobility.
was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It allowed any member of the Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed
Powerful ROYAL FAMILY in Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain. Fought in a bunch of wars and owned huge territory including the Ottoman Empire. Huge impact.
-r.1658 - 1705
-Holy Roman Emperor
-resisted advances of the Ottoman empire
-allowed Habsburgs to develop Mediterranean trade
-extended influence over some of the Balkans
-policies continued by Joseph I (r.1705 - 1711)
He had no male heir and only a daughter (Maria Theresa) and he made the Pragmatic Sanction to ensure that she would be able to be the legitimate ruler of Austria
Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society
the house that ruled Prussia, they gradually won control over the Brandenburg through mariages, giving them control of German principalities in central and western Germany.
1st Prussian ruler; unites Brandenburg and other states to form Prussia; runs state as if it were army; builds civil service based on military (Commissant governs both civil and military)
Prussian, conservative, land-owning class
First King of Prussia
Fredrick William I
Prussian King who built a large army and raised taxes.
King of Prussia who seized Silesia from Austria
First tzar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of his followers. Killed his only heir and launched Russia into a Time of Troubles.
the name for the emperor of Russia, also known as czar
Russian dynasty; started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles; lasted until 1917
Peter the Great
Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
group of military officers that attempted to revolt against Peter the Great on his absence
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Areas of town where individual religious groups could live and practice their religions.
Huge empire in Asia Minor; Very Powerful; Muslim
Islamic Scholars who domonated Ottoman religious institutions as well as schools and courts of law, they were consulted by administrative officials for advise in return for support to the state
Treaty of Carlowitz
Required the Ottoman Empire to surrender most of Hungary to the Habsburgs, Poland, and Venice
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