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History Test #3
Terms in this set (80)
- Solon was a well known wise man who was neither rich or poor, who was respected and listened to.
- sought eunomia
Who was Solon and what did he do/propose?
- good order
- a central notion not only in the governance of cities but also in the ordering of life, in everyday behaviors and in the working of the natural world.
What form did Greek Gods assume?
- functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
- place for socializing and engaging in intellectual pursuits.
ancient Greek term gymonos meaning naked
Where does the word gymnasium come from?
mans sana in corpore sano
'A sound mind in a sound body'
- expresses the Athenian aim of achieving a balance of intellectual and physical discipline, an ideal of humanistic education.
1. number of columns at the entrance
2. type of colonnade
3. type of portico
Name 3 ways to identify a Greek temple...
Octastyle peripteral temple with a hexastyle portico
What type of temple is the Parthenon?
'City on the Height'
What does Acropolis mean?
Temple of Nike
What are the 4 main structures on the Acropolis?
Sculptural ornamentation was completed in 432 BCE
When was the Parthenon built? How long did it take to build?
Who was responsible for the sculptural forms of the Parthenon?
- proportion produced when a line segment is divided into 2 parts such that the ratio of the longer part a to the shorter part b is is equal to the ratio of the entire segment a + b to be the longer part a.
What is the Golden Section or Ratio? (explain with number/letters)
What are the "Elgin Marbles"?
if you couldn't pay back the rich thy could do whatever they wanted.
chaotic central/gathering space.
Greek temple architecture
pronaos, naos, colonnade, number of columns, column row.
body of the temple
vestibule at the front of classical temple, enclosed by a portico and projecting sidewalls.
a row of columns supporting a roof
derived from the latin word Caput meaning head
Greek goddess of wisdom
well-preserved relics taken from the Parthenon, housed in the British museum.
Xia, Shang, Zhou, Warring States Period, Qin, Han
What are the 1st dynasties of China?
- Irrigation scheme
- Minjiang (Min) river
What is Dujiangyan? what river does it affect.
Li Bing in 270 - 256 BCE and to separate the Minjiang River due to its flooding (wet season, summer), drought (winter) and uncertainty.
Who built the Dujiangyan, why and when?
Created the Dujiangyan irrigation scheme that divided the Minjiang River.
Who was Li Bing? Why is he revered in China?
481- 221 BC
- 7 major and minor cities were fighting for domination
- fortification walls
- multiple enclosures an barricades
- satellite towns
- height and verticality as the ruler's authority
- invisibility of the ruler
What is the Warring States Period?
- United Defense system against invasions from the north
- construction continued up to the Ming Dynasty
- Approximately 4,500 miles
Why was the Great Wall of China built? How long is it approximately?
- Network of Trade routes
What was the Silk Road?
When was the silk rode formally established?
Dujiangyan Irrigation Scheme
scheme by Li Bing meant to help the regulation of the Minjiang river
Solved the problems dealing with eh Minjiang river
221 - 206 BCE
origin of the Western name China.
1st dynasty following the unification of China
aka Ying Zheng, was the 1st emperor of the Qin dynasty, claimed divinity
Terra Cotta Warriors
constructed to form a defense system against the north
Moche - North
Nazca - South
Where did Moche and Nazca societies develop? [which country, which location, etc]
What were the skills of Moche?
What were the skills of Nazca?
- gold was a symbol of power/social status
- Gold/copper headdresses were used by priests.
How did the Moche people view gold?
Huaca del Sol
Huaca del la Luna
What 2 structures were important in the Moche ceremonial complex?
Huaca del sol
- temple built with adobe
- largest pre columbian
- multiple segments to improve resistance to seismic activity
- sacred buildings at the top
- sides of the stepped pyramid were decorated with colorful patterns and images.
Huaca de la Luna
- 290m x 210m x 22m
- served as a shrine and ceremonial complex for sacrifice
- human remains were found
- built at the BASE of Cerro Blanco
Spiraling holes that funneled wind into canals below, helping to move water along them
What is a puquio? Describe its function.
Lines scratched on the surface of the ground between 500 BCE and 500 CE
- depict living creatures, stylized plants, and imaginary beings
What are the Nazca Lines? Why are they called "geoglyphs"?
manganese and iron oxide deposits covered the stony desert surface with a thin patina
Describe the geography of the Nazca line...
he ground was flipped over to reveal the other side which is where the color comes from.
How were the Nazca Lines created?
- Largest and most impressive city of ancient Mesopotamia
- More widely influential than any other civilization of its time in Mesopotamia
- Developed sophisticated water management systems
- How the city center was sited in relation to the areas contour map
Where is Teotihuacan? What is its significance?
'the place where men become Gods'
What did "Teotihuacan" mean
The Pyramid of the Sun
The Avenue of the Dead
The Pyramid of the Moon
Plaza of the Moon
Temple of the Serpent God (Feathered Serpent)
Palace compound (Great Compound)
What are the main structures at Teotihuacan?
group of elders in republican Rome
center of civic life
by the bay of Naples
Where is Pompeii?
The supposedly extinct volcano Mt. Vesuvius erupted and buried a host of cities
How did Pompeii get destroyed?
When did the Roman Empire emerge?
- Housed the law court
- Other official events/happenings
- Higher central nave
- Lower flanking aisles
- An apse at the end/opposite to the entrance
- The prototype for later Christian church
What is a basilica?
Chief priest of the state religion
Who is the pontifex maximus?
Capital of the world
- viewed from the side
- not meant to go inside
- sacred space inside
Lime mortar + volcanic sand + water + small stones
What is concrete?
Deities - Gods
Famous people - generals, senators
When was the Colosseum Built?
its location beside the Colossus of Nero
Where doe the name "Colosseum" come from?
What does Hagia Sophia mean?
Reusing the man building materials
Roman emperor who became the principal patron of Christianity
Battle of Milvian Bridge
The battle where Constantine defeated his rival Maxentius
An underground cemetery, esp. one consisting of tunnels and rooms with recesses dug out for coffins and tombs.
shelves to store dead bodies
small rooms that served as mortuary chapels
places for civic meetings, documentation, and notarization, and above all else, civil court proceedings
central and principal part of a christian church, extending from the entrance to the transepts.
passageway to either side of the name that is separated from the nave by colonnades
a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome
part of an interior wall rising above the adjacent roof with windows admitting light
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