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A ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue. At each step on his rise to power, Napoleon held one of these. In each one, the French strongly supported him.


To add a territory onto an existing state or country. Napoleon created a vast empire. He added some areas of France, including the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany.


Shutting off of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.


In 1799, Napoleon helped overthrow the weak Directory and set up a three-man governing board. Another constitution was drawn up but Napoleon soon took the title First Consul. In 1802, he had himself named consul for life.

Confederation of the Rhine

This abolished the Holy Roman Empire and created a 38-member confederation under French protection.

Napoleonic Code

This was a new law code at the time. In embodied the Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit. It undid some reforms of the French Revolution. Women lost most of their newly gained rights and could not exercise the rights of citizenship. This law code valued order and authority over the individual rights.

Concordat of 1801

This made peace with the Catholic Church. It kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics. Revolutionaries who opposed the Church denounced the agreement, but Catholics welcomed it.

Battle of Trafalgar

This battle fought off the southwest coast of Spain. British admiral Horatio Nelson smashed a French fleet.

Continental System

This closed European ports to British goods.

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