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The distinctive brain waves that accompany various stages of sleep are detected by:

an electroencephalogram.

As a person gradually shifts from Stage 1 to Stage 4 sleep, brain waves become progressively ________ in frequency and ________ in amplitude.

lower; higher

Sleep spindles are characteristic of ________ sleep.

Stage 2

REM sleep is characterized by ________ frequency and ________ amplitude brain waves.

high; low

Getting only half of a normal night of sleep is likely to cut most deeply into your ________ sleep time.


Mind-altering substances are called ________ drugs.


Caffeine is an ________ to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine because it ________ the acetylcholine's effect.

agonist; enhances

Psychedelic drugs are also called:


Worldwide, the most commonly used psychoactive drugs are:

caffeine and alcohol.

The "drug reward" system in the brain is found primarily in the _______ system.


Research on addictive drugs most clearly indicates that:

most of America's ex-smokers were able to kick the habit on their own.

Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:

decreasing REM sleep.

Neuroadaptation most clearly contributes to:

drug tolerance

The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with:

unconscious mental activity.

Narcolepsy is associated with a relative absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces:


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