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Child Development: Theorists & Observation
Terms in this set (28)
Genetic Characteristics passed down from earlier generations. (parent to child)
People, places, things that suround and influence a person and their development.
Ex: eye color, blood type, height, hair color, etc...
Each stage of development has particular challenges. Mastery of theses challenges prepares a person for the next stage in development.
How you value yourself
believed that personality develops through a series of stages. Emotional experiences in childhood have a profound effect on a person as an adult.
Stressed that children learn by using their senses and that they learn best by pursuing their own interests. Teachers should facilitate learning, not instruct.
Children need to be given objects to manipulate so they can exercise their own sensory learning.
Developed basic information about the order in which children master various skills and the typical rate of this development.
First to study Child development in a scientific manner.
Believed that children go through four stages Cognitive development that shapes how they will see and learn about the world. (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, & formal operational)
believed that both biological develpment and cultural experiences influenced children's ability ot think and learn. Social intereaction was essential for intellectual development.
Believed that personality develops through stages. Believed that each stage inclued a unique psychological crisis. If that crisis is met in a positive way the individual develops normally.
Believed that when a child's action repeatedly brings positive effects, it will be repeated and learned. When negative results repeatedly occur, the child will eventually stop the actions.
Parents and other caregivers can use positive rewards, negative responses and punishment to try and influence a child's behavior
Believed in a pyramid-shaped Hierarchy of needs. Believed that needs must be met in order: Physiological, safety, love and belonging, and self-esteem. Self acutalization is the highest level of achievement. Not everyone masters all levels.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
To reach a child's full potential their needs must be met sequentially, moving them up the pyramid.
Children learn through modeling. (parents and other individuals)
Disagreed with Skinner and pointed out that although environment shapes behavior, behavior also affects the environment.
Parents and Caregivers must provide good examples inorder to model positive behaviors. This is how children learn to behave/respond to events.
Studies children's moral development. Stesses the role of the parent and other caregivers by the example they set.
Objective vs. Subjective observations
Objective-uses facts of the even to explain what occured
Subjected- uses personal opinions and feelings rather than facts.
Running record, anecdotal record, frequency count, & Developmental checklist
writing down, for a set period of time, everything that is observed about a particular child, group, or teacher.
writing down for a set period of time everything tha is observed focusing only on a particular issue,from the subject.
A tally of how often a certain behavior occurs.
identifies a series of specific skills or behaviors that a child of a certain age should master.
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