Physics BrainPop Quarter 4
Motion, energy, and machines
Terms in this set (71)
When is potential energy transferred into kinetic energy?
when an object at rest is put into motion
When does an object have no kinetic energy?
when it is at rest
When does a yo-yo have the greatest potential energy?
at its highest point
Why do objects of higher elevation(altitude) have more potential energy than those at lower elevations?
Gravity gives objects of higher elevations the potential to fall much farther.
Kinetic and potential energy are the two types of energy related to ___.
What is potential energy?
stored energy due to position or location
What is kinetic energy?
energy that an object has due to its motion
The amount of kinetic energy that an object has depends on its ___ and __.
mass and speed
When is kinetic energy transferred from object to object?
When the objects collide
What does speed measure?
how fast an object is moving
What does acceleration measure?
the rate at which speed or direction changes
What is the difference between positive and negative acceleration?
Positive acceleration occurs when an object speeds up; negative acceleration occurs when an object slows down.
If distance = speed x time, then it must also be true that time = ________
If a train travels 100 km/hr, how far will it travel in a half hour (30 minutes)?
If a train travels from NY traveling 90 km/hr, how far will it have traveled in five hours?
If runner traveled 32 km at a rate of 9 km/hr, how long did he/she run?
How fast is a train that travels 1,600 km in 16 hours?
A bus travels 8 km in 45 minutes. How fast does the bus travel?
What happens when an unbalanced force is applied to an object at rest?
the object accelerates
If you were driving a car and wanted to accelerate at a rate of -10 m/s/s, what would you need to do?
step on the brake
Approximately how fast would a falling ball accelerate?
10 m/s/s (or 9.8 m/s/s)
If a 10 kg ball was accelerating at a rate of 2 m/s/s, how much force would it have?
What is the mass of an object that has 50 Newtons of force and is accelerating 2 m/s/s?
What is gravity?
According to Sir Isaac Newton, gravity depends on two factors. What are they?
mass and distance
According to Newton's Laws, what might happen to the earth if its orbit moved further away from the sun?
the sun's gravitational pull on the earth would decrease
Why is the earth's gravity stronger than the moon's?
Earth is more massive than the moon.
What will happen if you're in a car when the driver slams on the brakes?
You will continue moving forward
According to Newton's 1st Law of Motion, an object in motion will remain in motion, unless:
an unbalanced force acts on the object
What causes a ball rolling across a rug to slow to a stop?
friction resists the balls forward motion
If an unbalanced force acts on an object, the object will ____.
accelerate in the same direction as the force
What is net force?
The combined forces acting on an object.
According to Newton's 3rd law of Motion, what happens when you push against a wall?
The wall pushes back at you with the same amount of force.
In a generator, kinetic energy is transformed into:
What is energy?
Anything that makes matter change or move
What is the primary source of light energy on earth?
What do wind and water have in common?
They both have mechanical energy.
What do fuel cells, batteries, and solar cells have in common?
They are sources of direct current.
How does alternating current differ from direct current?
Direct current flows in the same (one) direction, while alternating current switches back and forth.
What is the function of every generator?
Changing mechanical energy into electrical energy
What is a possible reason to conserve electricity?
Electricity is often created by burning fossil fuels, which pollute and use non-renewable resources.
What happens if you disconnect a circuit from positive terminal?
Electrons stop flowing and the current stops
What is current?
steady flow of electrons
What are electrons?
negatively charged, subatomic particles
What might happen if wires weren't insulated?
The danger of harm from electrical shock.
What device opens and closes an electric circuit?
How does rubber differ from metal?
Rubber is a good insulators; metals are good conductors.
If an object gets an excess number of electrons on its surface, what type of charge would it have?
What is the major difference between static electricity and current electricity?
Current electricity is a steady flow of electrons, while static electricity involves a single transfer of electrons.
What causes static electricity?
An imbalance of positive (protons) and negative (electrons) charges
Lightning is a form of static electricity. What can you infer about that happens when lightning strikes the ground?
Electrons are transferred from cloud to ground.
What does lightning have in common with the shock you receive when you touch a doorknob?
They are both forms of static electricity.
What are the components of a circuit?
pathway, energy source, and an energy receiver (load)
The flow of electrons through a conductor is called a ___
How do you know when force has been applied to an object?
A 12 Newton box moves up a 6 meter ramp. In order to find out how much power you created, what do you need to know?
The time it takes to complete the task.
You do 90 Joules of work in 30 seconds. How much power have you generated?
You move an 8 Newton weight 5 meters in 4 seconds. How much power have you generated?
What do levers, pulleys, wheels and axles, and inclined planes have in common?
All are simple machines
What happens if you decrease the distance between the fulcrum and the load (resistance)?
You use less force to move the load.
What defines a first class lever?
The fulcrum is between the load (resistance or output) and the effort (input) force.
How is a 3rd class lever different from a 1st or 2nd class lever?
A 3rd class lever makes the job harder.
In physics, what is work?
The effort (input) exerted over a distance.
What does one newton exerted over a distance of 1 meter equal?
A kid applies a force of 70 N to a ball over 1.1 meters. How much work did he do?
A weightlifter lifts two 300 Newton weights 1.5 meters off the ground. How much work has been done?
An object falls 5 meters with a force of 980 newtons. How much work has gravity done?
Simple machines make work easier by increasing ______.
distance over which work is done.
What is the effort(input) force?
Force you apply to a simple machine
What is the benefit of a simple machine?
It allows us to move objects more easily.
What is a fulcrum?
A fixed point around a simple machine rotates.
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