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Terms in this set (64)
testosterone works by binding to receptors and ______
altering gene expression
excess in testosterone can lead to greatly increased
risk of cancer and heart, liver, and kidney diseases
hormones are _____ messages that allow ____ communication between ____ cells in the body
chemical, slow, distant
hormones control longer-term ___ process. i.e. growth and puberty
____ cells secrete substances into ducts that are connected to the outside world
what kind of cells are involved in many immune cell processes
autocrine and paracrine
____ ____ secrete circulating hormones
auto/ paracrine hormones never enter the ____ system
the stimulation of this hormone can cause fatty acids and blood to ciruclate throughout the body at a much faster rate than usual. it also stimulates the flight or fight response
the use of the ____ and ____ allows for signal amplification and forthe signal to travel through the cell
g protein, adenylyl cyclase
what are the 3 types of hormones?
1. peptide or protein hormones
2. steroid hormones
3. amine hormones
t or f? peptide hormones are fat soluble?
f. peptide hormones are water soluble
t or f? peptide hormones can pass through the cell membrane
f. no b/c peptide hormones are polar
t or f? steroid hormones are lipid soluble
t. they are nonpolar
the growth hormone and insulin are examples of which type of hormones?
the receptors for ___ hormones are found on the inside of cells. ____ hormones have surface receptors
steroid, protein/ peptide
epinephrine is an example of a(n) ______ hormone
the recptors for water-soluble proteins are large glycoproteins with 3 domains:
one that pertrudes froim the cell, one that is within the cell's membrane, and one cytoplasmic domain that extends into the cytoplasm
the ____ phosphorylates the proteins inside of the cell and this intiates a response
hormones activate a change in _____ and this synthesizes ___
the receptors for lipid-soluble hormones typically work buy
altering gene expression
the pituitary gland is the link between the ____ and many ____
NS, endocrine glands
what are the 2 parts of the pituitary gland?
anterior and posterior
the posterior pituitary is responsible for which 2 hormones known as nuerohormones?
antidiruetic and oxytocin
the antiduretic hormone is important for
____ is involved in breastfeeding and uterus contractions
both the anterior and posterior pituitary hormones leave the gland via
what are tropic hormones
hormones which control the activities of other endocrine glands
what 4 tropic hormones does the naterior pituitary release?
thyrotropin adrenocorticotropin, lutenizing hormone, and FSH
the growth hormone is released from the
which hormone results in increased metabolism and growth?
the pancrease is special because it functions as both an ____ and _____ gland
endocrine and exocrine
the exocrine parts account for ____ fo the pancrease
what is the name of the endocrine parts of the pancrease
islets of langerhans
which cells in the pancrease secrete insulin
islets of langerhans
pancrease beta cells secrete_____. pancrease alpha cells secrete
which type of diabetes involves the destruction of insulin secreting cells?
how insulin is made:
1) it starts out as a big inactive protein called _____
2) the _____ is cleaved
3) proteins make _____ bonds between chains a and b
4) _____ is cleaved
preproinsulin, signal sequence, sulfide, chain c
the brain depends on _______ as an energy source
after you eat, your ___ levels increase
which hormone decreases blood glucose. which hormones increases blood glucose?
glucagon increases. insulin decreases
what cells make up 65-80 % of the islet cells?
beta cells (insulin producing)
what will stimulate the pancrease to secrete insulin?
when there is an increase in blood glucose
what stimulates cells to uptake more glucose?
increased amounts of insulin
what stimulates the pancrease to secrete glucagon?
a decrease in blood glucose
what stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver?
an increase in glucagon
insulin stimulates cells to use _____ and convert it to ______ and fat
____ triggers the exocytosis of intracellular vesicles containing glut-4 transporters. this reults in an increased # of ______ molecules in the plasma membrane
what type of diabetes is this? "due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells
what type of diabetes is this? " due to insulin resistance caused by lack of suffient functional insulin receptors on target cells"
what occurs when cells use fat and proteins for energy?
the liver switches to starvation metabolism and makes ketone bodies
glucose and ketone bodies cause high blood _____: forces ____ out of cells
what is the range of healthy bmi?
which 2 scientist discovered diabetic dogs could be cured from pancrease extract?
banting and best
The steroid hormones are synthesized from _______.
The best source of pituitary hormones for medical uses today is
genetically engineered bacteria
T or f? Ketoacidosis involves the excessive accumulation of acidic ketobodies in the blood which raises blood ph
Diabetic hypoglycemia can occur if too much insulin is injected
Over 20 million ppl in the us have been diagnosed with diabetes
___ requires a surface receptor that is a tyrosine kinase
True or false? The insulin receptor dimerizes upon ligand bonding
True or false? The insulin receptor when activated becomes a kinase
True or false? Activation of the insulin receptor lease to the internalization of GLUT4 into the cell?
T or f? Saliva contains IGA
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