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the liquid or gas that does the dissolving


the substance that gets dissolved by the solvent


mixture of substances where one is dissolved in the other


mixture of substances that are not dissolved in each other


when particles of the solute are completely surrounded by particles of the solvent


a solid that comes out of solution


able to dissolve


unable to dissolve


(v): to make thinner or less concentrated; (adj): solution that contains a small amount of solute


solution that contains a large amount of solute


a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute


mass of solute per unit volume of solvent; amount of solute in certain amount of solvent


concentration of a saturated solution

Polar covalent bond

a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally

Polar molecule

has opposite slightly charged ends

Hydrogen bond

weak attractive interaction


the tendency of unlike molecules to stick (water sticking to other molecules)


the tendency of molecules to stick to themselves (water sticking to water)

Surface tension

makes it difficult to break the surface of a liquid

Capillary action

the ability of a liquid to flow against gravity in a thin tube or in a porous material like paper


sloping area of land that drains all of the water in it and on it into one body of water

Ground water

water that is in the ground

Nutrients (nitrates and phosphates)

substances necessary for growth of all living things; nitrogen and phosphorus; too much is bad


substance that is unhealthy even in small amounts


cloudiness or clarity of water

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

oxygen dissolved in water; necessary for plants and animals to breathe

Polluted runoff

water that does not soak into the ground but instead runs along the surface

Impervious surfaces; pervious surfaces

doesn't soak up water; does soak up water

Point source pollution

can pinpoint source of pollution

Non point source pollution

cannot pinpoint source of pollution; don't know where comes from


sewage water that includes animal and human waste


cleared waste water


incoming sewage

Silt fence

fence set up to catch dirt and erosion during construction

Riparian buffer

vegetation along water backs that help hold soil in place

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