Test 4 Egg and meat

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great things about eggs
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Terms in this set (193)
follicular hierarchovum (yolk) -packaged inyolk materialwhite and yellow yolk is deposited in ovum viapinocytosisfxn of infundibulumcaptures ovum -site of fertilizationfxn of magnumwhere thick albumen is secreted -ovalbumin -ovomucincomposition of albumenprotein (12%) water (88%) solutionnarrowing of oviduct that helps shape eggline of demarcationfxn of isthmussecretes shell membranes -inner and outer shell membrane -chalaza depositedovomucinfibrous protein in thick albumenfxn of uteruschalaza formation continues plumping shell formation addition of cuticleplumpingthe egg laying processovipositionegg laying processovipositionfrom ovulation to oviposition how much time has passed26 hrsthick albumen is secreted and used to formouter thin albumen chalaza inner thin albumen thick is created thin is formedtypes of albumin in eggouter thin inner thin chalazathe shell consists ofcuticle spongy layer mammillary layeryolk consists ofgerminal disk latebra light yolk dark yolk yolk membrane- vitellinemembrane consists ofair cell outer and inner shell membranefxn of cuticleprevent infectionshell and shell membrane fxnprevent infectionfxn of yolknutritionyolk is composed ofwater protein fat ashfat soluble vitaminsA,D,E,Kfats in yolkADEKWater Soluble vitaminsThiamin Riboflavin Niacin Biotin Folate Choline Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 Vitamin CT/F amino acid pattern in eggs almost matches the human req for essential amino acidstrueformation of air cell due tothermal contraction -air is pulled through the pores evaporation of CO2 and H2Oare the most efficient source of getting proteinyes proteins in yolk are the most efficient to turn into body tissuewhere does air cell formon the large end of the eggEggs>Milk>Soybeans>Rice>Corn>Beanswhy does the pH of the egg inc after being layedpH increase b/c of the loss of water and CO2 -causes a loss in the bufferfxn of ovalbuminfoam formationwhat causes a thinning of the albumenloss of carbohydrate group (more accurate) Thinning of albumen (no evidence )fxn of Ovotransferrin/conalbuminbacteriostatic metal bindingloss of carbohydrate group theoryas eggs age -inc in free ovomucin -inc in free carbohydrates -carbohydrate chains degrade causes albumen thinningfxn of Ovomucoidbacteriostatic-inhibits protein digestion enzyme (trypsin)lysozyme theory(no evidence) ovomucin-lysozyme complex breaks downfxn of GlobulinsfoamingChanges in yolk quality as egg agesweakening of vitelline membrane -stretching from plumping -loss water with storage -membrane is not elasticfxn of lysosomesbactericidal -lyses cellsHow to maintain good interior qualityrefrigeration oil spray inc relative humidity inc CO2 environment Good inventory controlfxn of ovomucinfoam stability albumen viscositymaintaining interior quality- fxn of refrigerationslows evaporationonly albumen protein that is bacteriocidallysozymemaintaining interior quality- fxn of oil sprayseals pores to slow evaporationfxn of ovoflavoproteinbacteriostatic binds riboflavinmaintaining interior quality- increasing relative humiditycreates equilibrium -75-80% relative humidityMEMORIZE ovalbumin ovomucin lysozyme ovotransferrin/conalbuminmaintaining interior quality- inc CO2 environmentdec CO2 evaporation -causes cloudy whitesovoinhibitorbacteriostaticwhat happens if the eggs are stored in an environment that is higher than 80%causes egg sweatingavidinbacteriostatic binds biotinideal humidity for egg storage75-80%why should you not consume raw eggsfood safety concern avidin in raw eggs binds to biotin making it unavailablemathematical relationship between thick albumen height and egg weighthaugh unitsemulsion made by the henyolkdirectly related to egg white thinninghaugh unitswhat is the yolk composed ofwater proteins lipidsration of yolk height to average yolk diameteryolk indexproteins in yolklipoprotiens ovovitellininitial pH of eggs final max pH of eggs7.4pH 10 pHlipids in yolktriglycerides phospholipids cholesterolfxn of candlingmeasure air cell size yolk mobilityfxn of lipids in yolkemulsifierused to measure haugh unittripod micrometeryolk lipid composition is responsive todiet b/c yolk is a lipid which is absorbed through the intestine and deposited in the yolkFactors affecting spoilageinitial load exterior factors intrisic factors nature of organismactive/functional yolk lipidsphospholipids -can interact with hydrophobic and philic proteinstypes of spoilageblack rot red rot gree rot taintneutral fats yolk lipidstriglyceridesFactors affecting microbial growth- Extrinsic factorstemp oxygen relative humiditymost important yolk lipidLecithinFactors affecting microbial growth- intrinsic factorspH water activity nutrientsbird influences on eggsegg size increases w/t age as egg size inc, amount of yolk dec proportion of yolk is higher in small egg compared to large egg albumen form older hen has a lower %solids (proteins diluted)Factors affecting microbial growth- nature of organimsgram + gram -factors influencing degree of yolk depositionfeed chemical structure of xanthophylls presence of antioxidants fat content of feedsteps in processing eggs-stored before processed <45*F -wash: 20*F higher than egg temp -rinse: 10*F higher than wash solution -dry -candled -oiled -weighed and sorted -packaged -stored -shippedwhat kind of eggs go to breaker plantscracked eggs surplus eggs b grade eggszero tolerance for eggsno leakers all shell membranes must be intactpigments in eggs that are beneficial for healthlutein zeaxanthinUSDA quality grading of shell eggs based on-size -weight -exterior quality -internal composition -presence of abnormalitieseggs are sold according toquality grades and size only a portion of eggs in a carton must be a certain grade to be marked as suchExterior quality grading- Clean, unbroken, practically normalA qualitypackaging egg cartonscardboard pulp styrofoam clear plastic flatsExterior quality grading- Clean, Unbroken, abnormal -mishappen -rough areas of calcium deposit -stains -checksB qualityExterior quality grading- Unbroken. Adhering dirt or foreign material, prominent strains, moderate stained areas in excess of B qualitydirtyExterior quality grading- Broken or cracked shell, but membranes intact, not leakingCheckshelf life of quality grades -grade AA -grade Agrade AA -1 week grade A -3 weeksgrades labeled on package refer tointerior qualitywhat cuases black rotaeromonuswhat causes red rotserratiawhat causes green rotpseudomonaswhat is taintorganisms in large numbersmethods of contamination of salmonella enteritidistransovarian oviposition cross contaminationlines of defense of eggcuticle shell membranes albumen yolk- no defense! if it gets here game overMethods of infiltration for microbesshell humidity membrane is porous albumen temp dependentalbumen proteins -binds metals (Fe) - bacteriostatic -more effective against gram +ovotransferrinalbumen proteins -bactericidal -peptidoglycan layer destroyed by thislysozymemethods of preventing microbial growth/infectionstorage in <4*C Pasteurization Screeningsafe handling instructions for eggs-refrigerate eggs -cook until yolks are firm -cook foods containing eggs thoroughlyegg productseggnog egg noodles powdered eggsforms of buying eggsdried frozen refrigerated liquidfunction of eggsgelation surface activity color flavoreggs as an ingredientboost nutritional content simplify food label natural many formsproteins change from liquid to solid due to denaturation -thickening agentsgelationsdenaturation of proteins when heated -what happensprotein structure will open up refold in new arrangement new permanent bonds formed- gelation_____ or _____ allows products that contain eggs to thicken and coagulate, converting the mixture from a liquid to a solidwhipping or heatingegg coagulation imparts rigidity causing mixtures to gel and ingredients to adhere due toheategg white is an excellentbinding agentfactors affecting coagulationtemp salt sugar acids alkali time pHhow to speed up coagulation to eggadd saltwhat increases egg albumen coagulation tempsugarwhat dec the rate of coagulation in eggssugaringredient add to eggs to prevent curdling and syneresisstarches and gumsadding liquids to egg product causesdilution of proteins inc coagulation temppeelability of a hard cooked egg depends onovomucin loses attachments to shell membranes as pH inchigh pH produce low gel strength with lower water holding capacitydec functionality of egg proteins____ loses attachments to shell membranes as pH increaseovomucinhow inc peelability of fresh eggsstore eggs at room temp place eggs in an ammonia environmentyolk centering in fresh eggs vs aged eggsfresh- yolk centered aged egg- pH increase ovomucin fibers break down yolk floats up to side of shellproblem with leaving eggs out to inc pealabilitymicrobiologically dangerousgreening in hard cooked eggsiron sulfide- black precipitatewhat affects greening in hard boiled eggscooking techniques and age affect greeningfoams and emulsions arestable mixtures of 2 immiscible materials2 phases of foamsdispersed phase continuous phasefoams -dispersed phase -continuous phase-dispersed phase air droplets -continuous phase protein solutionmarjo foaming protein used in food industryegg white2 proteins important for foam IMPORTANTovalbumin- foam ability ovomucin- foam stabilityovalbumin fxn in foamfoam abilityovomucin fxn in foamfoam stabilityfactors influencing foam formation and stabilitypH amount of salt Sugar amountegg white exhibits maximum foaming properties at what pH8-9how to control pH during foaminguse cream of tartarSalts do what to foamdec foaming of egg whitesugars impairfoam expansion but improve foam stabilityrole of emulsifiers in emulsionsformation of emulsion stabilization of emulsionprimary emulsifiers from egg yolkphospholipids lipoproteinsfactors affecting emulsionsfreezing temperature acid salt dryinghow does freezing affect emulsionsreduces emulsion capacity and stabilityif you freeze egg yolks, you must add10% salt or sugarhow does temp affect emulsionspasteurization reduces emulsifying capacitydefine foamcolloidal dispersion -air in water mixtureprimary egg proteins involved in foamingovalbumin ovomucinfirst step in making foamincorporation of air into egg albumenfactors affecting foamingegg age egg pH solids content yolk/fat mechanical action pasteurization temp during foam formation temp during cooking water acids salt sugar copper flour gums citric acid surfactants estersegg age affects foaming howfresh eggs- good foaming ability and stability old eggs- good ability and poor stabilityEgg pH affects foaming howhigh pH leads to poor protein functionalitysolids content affects foaming howinc solids inc foam volume and stability older hens have lower solids contentyolk/fat affects foaming howdec foam ability and stability by forming yolk ovomucin complexoil, egg yolk, emulsifiers affect foaming howdec foam volumemechanical action affects foaming howbeating chopping denaturs proteinspasturization affects foaming howinc whip timetemp during foam formation affects foaming howdec whip time at room temptemp during cooking affects foaming howprotein denaturationwater affects foaming howinc initial volume dec stability due to dec solidsacids affects foaming howdec pH inc protein denaturationsalt affects foaming howinc protein solubilitysugar affects foaming howdelays initial foam formation inc foam viscositycopper affects foaming howbinds conalbumin helps to make it more heat stableflour/sugar affects foaming howhelp to stabilize structurecream of tartar affects foaming how KNOWimproves egg protein functionality by reduing pH stabilizes product colorester and surfactants affects foaming howenhances foamingmeringue consists offoam and sugar2 kinds of meringuesoft peak stiff glossy peakwhat causes browning on meringuemaillard reaction egg white and sugarmeringue powder is used foricings recipes that do not req a heat treatmentwhat are humectantshygroscopic (water pulling) substances to retain moisture and include moisture -retention agentscontrolling crystallization is done howadding egg whites can slow down sugar crystallization encourages small ice crystal formationeggs in baking affectcolor flavorfxn of eggs in breadsbrowning structural qualityfxn of eggs in frostingstructural desirability adds rich flavor emulsifiesbenefits for liquid, frozen, dried egg productsreduced handling and shipping costs less labor and minimal equipment stable and uniformegg shells go intoanimal feedwhy may pasteurization tempr differ btwn egg partsdenaturation point is different for different parts of the eggsissues w/t pasteurization of eggs -dec fxnality when heated- solutionsolution inc denaturation point of conalbumin add lactic acid or metalsmethods of drying eggsspray drying tray drying membrane filtrationIMPORTANT issue w/t spray drying albumen turns pink b/c Fe binds to conalbuminsolution addl aluminum sulfate before pasteurizationissue w/t spray drying browning- maillard rxnsolution desugarization before pasteurizationdried egg products are primarily used byfood industrysolution to preventing ice crystal formation in yolk during freeezingad 10% salt or sugaryolk fatty acid profile is responsive tohen dietother uses of eggsvaccines culture media cosmetics