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Sedimentary Rocks

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Sedimentary rocks are ______.
____ are layered
Sedimentary rocks cover ____ of the Earth's surface and __ of Earth's mass
80% and 1%
____ breaks down mountain or rocks, _____ gets ____, until it eventually reaches the ____
WEATHERING breaks down ___, BROKEN PRODUCT gets moved, until it eventually reaches the OCEAN
Sedimentary rocks, on the way to the ____, are ___ by ___, converting the rocks into ______ which are carried to the ___ and _____as new ____
___, on the way to the OCEAN, are DISSOLVED by RAIN WATER, ___ the rocks into IONS which are ___ to the OCEAN and PRECIPITATE as new MINERALS
Through weathering, the ocean receives either _____ or ____
Through ____, the ocean receives either SMALL PIECES OF BROKEN ROCK or DISSOLVED IONS
What are the transport agents of weathering?
Water and Wind, ie. ice, currents, wind, waves, meltwater, tides
What are the sediments that are transported through weathering?
rock fragments, grains of minerals broken from rock, mineral crystals precipitated from water, shells
What cements together to form sedimentary rocks?
loose rock fragments or shell fragments, mineral crystals precipitated from water
What is Lithification
"Stoning process"
What are two processes of Lithification
Compaction and Cementation
Compaction
More and more layers are added, bottom layers has lots of pressure, rock created
Cementation
Loose grains glued together from a sort of glue that hardens and creates rock
4 kinds of Sedimentary Rock
Clastic, Chemical, Biochemical, Organic
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
made from cemented-together "detritus" (solid fragments/grains)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
formed when water solutions precipitate into minerals
Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
made from shells of organisms
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
forms from carbon-rich relicts of life-forms
Detritus
solid fragments/grains that are cemented together to form Clastic sed rocks
Particle sizes of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Course, Medium, Fine, Very Fine
____ grained are more angular and large, they come from ___ to mountain, formed along a ___ water current, having traveled ___ distance
COURSE grained are more ___ and ___, they come from CLOSE to ___, formed along a FAST ___, having traveled LITTLE distance
Fine grained are more ____ and ___, they come from close to ___, formed along a ___ water current, having traveled ___ distance
___ are more ROUNDED and SMALL, they come from ___ to OCEAN, formed along a SLOW ___, having traveled LONG distance
___ grained create sediment Gravel and rock ______
COURSE grained creates ___ Gravel and ___ CONGLOMERATE
___ grained create sediment ____ and rock _____stone
MEDIUM grained create ___ SAND and ___ SANDstone
___ grained create Mud/____ sediment and rock ____stone
Fine grained create Mud/SILT ___ and ___ SILTstone
Very-fine grained create ___ sediment and rocks ____ or ___ or ___
___ grained create CLAY ___ and ___ MUDSTONE or SHALE or CLAYSTONE
Examples of Course-grained clastic sedimentary rocks
Breccia and Conglomerate
____ is a rounded, course-grained while ___ is an angular, course-grained ____ sedimentary rock
CONGLOMERATE is ___, course-grained, BRECCIA is ___, course-grained and they are CLASTIC sedimentary rocks
This medium-grained clastic rock has quartz and feldspar
Arkose
This medium-grained clastic rock has pure quartz
Sandstone
This medium-grained clastic rock has no minerals, just different pieces of rock
Graywacke
Example of fine-grained clastic sedimentary rocks
Siltstone
This ___-grained rock is made of ____ and splits into thin sheets
SHALE, made of VERY FINE-grained CLAY, splits or doesn't split?
This ___-grained rock is made of ____ but does not split
MUDSTONE, made of VERY FINE-grained CLAY, splits or doesn't split?
If a Clastic sedimentary rock is Less Mature, it is ____, and more specifically is ____ and ____ ____
Rocks that are CLOSEST TO THE SOURCE are PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY IMMATURE
If a Clastic sedimentary rock is More Mature, it is ____, and more specifically is ____ and ____ ____
Rocks that are FARTHEST FROM THE SOURCE are PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY MATURE
______ rocks are ___ grain size of ___ shape and contain ____ having not turned into clay
PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY IMMATURE rocks = large, angular, and contain Feldspar because?
______ rocks are ___ grain size of ___ shape and contain ____, all feldspar having been completely converted
PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY MATURE rocks = small, rounded, and contain Clay because?
Small, rounded rocks that contain Clay are _____ with a uniform grain size
WELL-SORTED rocks are also ___, ____ and contain ____ with ___ grain size
Large, angular rocks that contain Feldspar are _____ with a mix of grain sizes
POORLY-SORTED rocks are also ___, ____ and contain ____ and ___ grain size
Different kinds of Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Evaporites, Dolostone, Chert and Travertine
Evaporites are formed from ___ in ____
Seawater evaporation in terminal lakes forms ___
Terminal lakes
salt lakes that have no outlet
Process of saltwater evaporation that produces ____
In terminal lakes the evaporation only removes the water, leaving the dissolved ions which become very concentrated in the lake water solution from which Evaporites are formed
Dolostone, a Chemical sed rock, is formed by ___
Reaction between limestone and magnesium-bearing groundwater produces mineral Dolomite
Chemical Chert is formed when ____
When very small quartz grains gradually replace calcite crystals in limestone it forms ____
When very small ____ grains gradually replace ____ crystals in ____ it forms ____
When very small QUARTZ ___ gradually ___ CALCITE crystals in LIMESTONE it forms Chemical CHERT
Examples of Chemical Chert
Flint, Jasper, Petrified Wood
____ is formed when volcanic ash buries ____
PETRIFIED WOOD is formed when _____ buries FORESTS
The Chemical Chert ____ is black, while ____ is red
FLINT is black and JASPER is red, they are both _____
Travertine is a ____ sedimentary rock also known as ____
CHEMICAL LIMESTONE is a CHEMICAL sedimentary rock also known as ______
Travertine can form near ____ or on _____
Chemical Limestone, or ___, forms near HOT SPRINGS or on WALLS OF CAVES
On ceilings of ____, the leak of groundwater forms _______
On ___ of CAVES, the leak of ___ forms STALACTITES
On floors of ____, the leak of groundwater forms _______
On ___ of CAVES, the leak of ___ forms STALAGMITES
Near ____, steam of __ is formed from which leftover ____ precipitates with ___ as ____
Near HOT SPRINGS, ____ of CO2 is formed from which leftover CALCITE ____ with CO3 as CHEMICAL LIMESTONE
What are the Chemical Limestones that form near hot springs called
Travertine
What are the Chemical Limestones that form on the ceilings and floors of caves called
Stalactites form on ceiling while Stalagmites form on floor
Different kinds of Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
Biochemical Limestone and Biochemical Chert
Biochemical Limestone is constructed from ____
The ions Calcium and Carbonate from organisms shells, left as sediment when organism dies, form _____
Biochemical Chert is constructed from _____
Dissolved silica from organisms shells, left as silica-rich solution when organism dies, form _____
When an organism makes its shell from ____, its leftover shells make biochemical chert
Dissolved silica
When an organism makes its shell from ____, its leftover shells make biochemical limestone
The ions Calcium and Carbonate
What are Plankton that forms its shells from cryptocrystalline quartz called
___ called Radiolaria form their shells from dissolved silica or ___
Biochemical chert ____ from a ____ solution made from dissolved shells of _______
Biochemical chert PRECIPITATES from a SILICA-RICH ____ made from ______ shells of RADIOLARIA
3 types of Biochemical Limestone
Fossiliferous Limestone, Micrite, Chalk
The biochemical limestone that is made from larger shell or shell fragments
Fossiliferous Limestone
The biochemical limestone that is made from lime mud
Micrite
The biochemical limestone that is made from plankton shells, or ____
Chalk, a __, is made from Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Plankton shells made from ions Calcium and Carbonate
Radiolaria
Plankton that make their shells from dissolved silica
Organic Sedimentary Rocks are formed from ____ making ___ or from _____ making ____
Dead animal organisms make OIL and GAS,
Dead plant organisms make COAL, and are examples of _____
Common minerals of Clastic sed rocks
quartz, feldspar, clay minerals
Common minerals of Chemical sed rocks
Calcite/Aragonite
Dolomite
Gypsum
Halite
Common minerals of Biochemical sed rocks
Calcite/Aragonite