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bio 22 Physiology
Terms in this set (28)
Renin is released in response to
decreased blood pressure
Which step in vitamin D production does the kidney perform?
Converts calcidio into calcitrol
Which hormone does the kidney produce that stimulates red blood cell production?
If there were no aquaporin channels in the collecting duct
You would suffer severe dehydration.
ADH acts on the _ to regulate facultative water reabsorption.
Late distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
Which of the following equations is CORRECT?
NFP = GBHP - CHP - BCOP
Most sodium ions may be reabsorbed through
Sodium - Glucose symporters in the proximal convoluted tubules.
Concentrated urine is formed in part because of the action of symporters which actively reabsorb ions from the fluid in the
Thick segment of the ascending nephron loop.
When blood pressure increases, blood vessels supplying the kidney will to mount a steady rate of filtration.
Which of these three paracrine chemicals cause vasodilation?
Which imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels rise to abnormal values?
what is the most abundant cation in intercellular fluid?
Which of the following is commonly used to produce ATP during skeletal muscle contraction?
Creatine phosphate, Gylycolysis,aerobic cellular.
One contraction in response to a single action potential is known as:
What regulatory proteins can be found in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers?
Tropomyosin and troponin
What signal causes the heart to secrete atrial natriuretic hormone?
Increased blood pressure.
What occurs during each stage of a muscle twitch (myogram)?
-Latent Stage: AP is propagated along the sarcolemma.
-Contraction period: Ca2+ ions in the sarcolemma have bound to troponin, causing tropomyosin to shift away from actin binding sites, cross-bridges are formed, and sarcomeres are actively shortening.
-Relaxation period: Tension decreases as contraction stops, Ca2+ ions are pumped out of sarcoplasm into the SR and returning muscle fibers to their resting state.
-Refractory period: The time immediately following a stimulus. The muscle is already contracting therefore will not respond to a second stimulus.
Explain how/why filtrate osmolarity increases along the descending loop of Henle and osmolarity decreases along the ascending loop of Henle.
Filtrate osmolarity increases along the descending loop of Henle because aquaporins allow water to pass from the filtrate into the interstitial fluid increasing osmolarity.
- Ascending loop of Henle reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- from the filtrate into the interstitial fluid, this decreases osmolarity.
Explain how the respiratory center accommodates rising and falling blood pH resulting from carbon dioxide.
- As more CO2 enters the blood, its converted into carbonic acid making blood more acidic. Respiratory acidosis occurs when pH is too low, caused by hypoventilation as too much CO2 comes in. Metabolic acidosis occurs as excessive production of acids or loss of bicarbonates such as diarrhea. Alkalosis occurs as the blood pH become too high, hyperventilation occurs causing the loss of too much CO2, increasing pH. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is a low production of acids or loss of digestive acids
17. Describe the hormonal control of sperm production. Which hormones and cells are involved
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to make LH and FSH. LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone and assists spermatogenesis, FSH stimulates spermatogenesis.
AP is progated along the sacrolemma.
Ca+2 ions in sacrolemma have bound to troponin which can cause tropomyosin to shift away from the actin binding sites, but cross bridges are formed and sacromeres are actively shortening.
Tension will decrease as contraction stops, Ca+ ions can pump out of sacroplasm into the SR and return muscle fibers to their resting state.
Immediately following a stimulus, muscle is already contracting therefore it will not respond to a sec stimulus.
1. Explain how and why filtration osmolarity increases along the descending loop of Henle and osmolarity decrease along the ascending loop of Henle?
· The filtrate of osmolarity increase along the descending loop because aquaporins allow water to pass from the filtrate into the interstial fluid and will increase osmolarity.
· The ascending loop will reabsorb Na+ and Cl- from the filtrate into the interstitial fluid by decrease osmolarity.
Falling blood pH resulting from carbon dioxide?
When CO2 enters the blood, it will convert into carbonic acid which is the making of the blood, but the respiratory acidosis occurs when the pH is way to low which is caused by hypoventilation of too much CO2 comes in. Metabolic acidosis only occurs if there is an excessive production of acids or loss of bicarbonate which is diarrhea. Alkalosis can occur when the blood of the pH is too high following hyperventilation can cause the loss of too much CO2 and will increase the pH, Metabolic alkalosis is when the production is low the acids or loss can digest.
1. hormones and cells are involved?
· Gonadotropin releases hormone and stimulates the cells to the anterior and will make LH and FSH. LH stimulates the testes to produce tester one and assists spermatogenesis, while FSH stimulates spermatogenesis.
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