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BIO EXAM #2: Lecture 13 (CONTENT)
Terms in this set (13)
Explain what the "Cambrian explosion" represents, when it occurred, and how it is an example of an adaptive radiation.
period of adaptive radiations within marine animal phyla
ex: evolution of vision and hard parts
Explain how fossils form
organism dies, bones left behind, covered with dirt/mud [sedimentation], dirt and mud becomes rock & bones become mineral matter
Limitations of fossil record
Habitat Bias (better record of aquatic organisms)
Taxonomic Bias (better records of organisms with hard parts)
Temporal Bias (better record of more recent organisms)
Abundance Bias (better record of more common organisms)
Two main types of fossils
body fossils (direct evidence- bones, etc.)
trace fossils (indirect evidence- footprints, chemical signatures, etc.)
Explain how paleontologists and geologists can estimate dates of important events in Earth's geological history using radioactive decay of different isotopes (such as 14 C and 238 U)
decay at predictable rates throughout all of time (rates that were not affected by the environment because it is elements and elements are supposedly constant)
Explain how mass extinctions differ from background extinctions and how they provide opportunities for adaptive radiations to occur.
mass extinctions are world-wide, an environmental event, or 50% or more of species will go extinct
adaptive radiations-- ecological advantages and opportunities open up for surviving organisms to occupy
Describe the likely cause of the End-Cretaceous mass extinction and the evidence that supports that cause.
from an asteroid... caused dust clouds, an impact winter, no photosynthesis, and sulfuric rain
avian birds and small burrowing mammals survived
Provide evidence that birds are dinosaurs, including their shared, derived traits.
urcula (wishbone), semilunate carpal, and hollow, pneumatic bones
Explain how plastics enter food webs, what potential impacts they can have on food webs
small fish consume the plastic, the fish fells full, the other predator eats the fish (with little nutrients), and passes on this toxin throughout the food web
Give strategies at multiple scales (individuals, corporations, nations, etc.) for reducing plastic pollution
Individual: reduce/eliminate the use of single plastic use and RECYCLE!
corporations: finding alternative materials for their products and productions., promote plastic free products in spite of potential economic loss at the beginning
Nation: creation of policies against plastic production (plastic tax)
The fossil record (3 important parts)
1. only source of direct evidence about what prehistoric organisms looked like, where they lived, when they lived
2. fossils are NECESSARY to calibrate phylogenies
3. fossils place evolutionary events in the context of earth's dynamic history
associated with ecological opportunity OR morphological innovation
1 species/1 million years
division of ecological time
ex: eons (largest)
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