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Megan Geo Exam #3
Terms in this set (133)
Explain latitudinal zonation
graticule: coordinate grid for a 3D sphere
1. latitude: East West direction
2. Longitude: North South
What makes it hot in the tropics and cold in the poles?
angle of incoming solar radiation
therefore less energy per unit area if sunlight comes in at an angle
What is the Tropic of Cancer
What is the Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees south
What is an equinox?
Autumnal or vernal
direct rays of sun cross equator from North to South
OR South to North
Explain tropical and its associated biome
hot, humid and dry
Explain tropical wet/dry and its associated biome
hot wet summer, dry winter
savannah woodland on wetter, equatorward side
savannah grassland on drier, poleward side
Explain arid/semi arid and its associated biome
potential evaporation exceeds precipitation
semi arid--steppe (grassland)
What is transpiration?
evaporation of water from plant leaves
What are low latitude climates
Where are arid climates located?
30 degrees N or S
Why are tropical soils infertile
nutrients are stored in biomass not in soil
civilizations have adapted themselves with shifting cultivation: Swidden, slash and burn agriculture
What are some mid latitude climates
humid continental (range of hot to cool summer)
Explain monsoons and tropical wet dry climate
1. Summer Wet Monsoon
-Low pressure over Asia
-Wind from South (moist from Indian and Pacific Ocean)
2. Winter Dry Monsoon
-High pressure over Asia
-wind from North (dry)
Explain river watered civilizations
higher population in river valleys
2. alluvid soils
-largest city in china
experienced a lot of growth in short period of time
Who was Zheng He and what did he do?
A Chinese Muslim admiral who led seven voyages to explore Europe
Explain the last dynasties of china and was after
Yuan (majority: Mongols)
Ming (majority: Han (Zheng He Voyages)
Qing (maj: manchus)
Republic of China: 1912 (Sun Yat Sen (first president))
Peoples Republic of China (Mao Zendong)
Who was the last emperor of China?
Who was the first president of china
How is the emperor established
God gives mandate and people believe
BUT God can change his mind.
Natural disasters mean emperor no longer has God's favor
both Marxism and capitalism came from Europe
Explain the Chinese civil war.
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Between KMT and CCP, and the Chinese Communist Party were victorious over the KMT.
What was the Long March?
The long march took place in 1934.
When Mao Zedong found out that the Chinese army was coming to arrest the communists he led the communists on a march over 6000 miles across China.
this is how they earned the favor of the people
Explain the "two Chinas"
Nationalist are at Taiwan
But China views them as one nation
1970's America recognizes communist party to be legitimate rulers of china
Who modernized china
physical barrier that separates Southern Africa from North Africa and the rest of Eurasia
What language and religion is dominant in North Africa
What is the semi arid grassland on the southern margin of the Sahara?
What nation is located in the Saheel
Name any endemic diseases or epidemic disease common to sub Saharan Africa
Before European colonialism Arabs established trade links across the Sahara that relied on what ________ to transport __________
Who controlled the slave trade from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East.
Who controlled the slave trade from Sub-Saharan Africa to the New World.
Africa was divided without regard to ethnic groups at what event
Berlin Conference to 1884-85
Who controlled the Cape to Cairo corridor
What country exports major mineral resources to china? It is large and poverty stricken.
Who colonized it until 1960?
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Interethnic civil war between Burindi and Rwanda that killed more than 300,000 resulted from the colonial decision to put what minority ethnic group in charge of the government
Most of Egypt has what climate?
Most Egyptians live in the valley of what river?
Which sub-Saharan African country has the largest population
Nigeria is Africa's largest producer in _____
Most oil production is in Southern Nigeria, whereas the poorest populations are in the ________ where the dominant religion is _________
What is Boko Haram, and where do they operate?
Terrorist organization, Nigeria
What nation has the largest increase in direct foreign investment in subsaharan Africa ports, railroads, and mineral development in the last 30 years?
Who were the first settlers in South Africa in 1652?
Their descendants were the Boers who fought which country for control of South Africa?
Who are the descendants of the Boers who took control of South Africa's government in 1948 and established apartheid
Tropical climate characteristics
hot, humid, rainy all year
Tropical wet/dry climate characteristics
Hot all year, rain in summer, dry in winter
Arid/Semi Arid climate characteristics
dry with a progressively less dry margin
Mediterranean climate characteristics
hot summer, mild wet in winter
humid subtropical climate characteristics
hot humid summers, mild winters
humid continental climate characteristics
seasonal temperature extremes, cold winter
Marine climate characteristics
cool summers, mild winters, cloudy and rainy
polar climate characteristics
cold and dry
highland climate characteristics
What biome does tropical climate have
What biome does tropical wet/dry climate have
What biome does arid/semi arid climate have
desert with a steppe (grassland) margin
What biome does mediterranean climate have
What biome does humid subtropical climate have
mixed deciduous-coniferous forest
What biome does humid continental climate have
mixed deciduous forest (south), northern coniferous forest (north)
What biome does marine climate have
marine coniferous forest
What biome does polar climate have
What biome does highland climate have
vegetation changes with altitude
What two climates predominate the middle east and north Africa
The Tigris and Euphrates river valleys were in the ancient ___________ which was part of ____________ which is part of what current country?
After 1100, the Middle East and North Africa came to be part of what?
When did the Ottoman Empire fall?
Which two nations drew up the Mandate System boundaries that would eventually become the countries of the Middle East
Britain and France
What was the most significant split is Islam?
After Mohammad's death
Sunni and Shia
Sunni Muslims account for what percentage of the overall Muslim population?
They are the majority
Shia Muslims account for what percentage of the overall Muslim population?
Turmoil in Iraq is a result of conflicts between what three groups
Name countries with a Kurdish minorities that would be part of a greater Kurdistan
What are the oil states in the Middle East
United Arab Emirates
The majority of Jordan's population are no longer Hashemites but refugees of what nationality from the conflict in Israel?
What French formed Middle Eastern country had a Christian majority but lost it due to increasing Muslim birth rates
What minority population that the French put in charge of Syria from which the Assad family came to rule after brutally suppressing opposition
The Islamic State attempted to create a caliphate in the peripheral desert regions of what two adjacent war torn countries
Iraq and Syria
The Islamic State has few allies in the Middle East and many enemies who refer to the group as
What is the Jewish mass migration to British Palestine began after what mass murder of Jews
The United Nations partitioning of Palestine created the nation of?
After the partitioning of Israel the first war with what adjacent nations ensued?
The perils of Democracy in the Middle East is expressed in this country. The population rebelled against its dictatorial secular President in 2011 and instilled extremist Islamic extremists. They were eventually disposed by the military
What is the poorest Middle Eastern nation (GNI per capita PPP Map) now embroiled in a Sunni-Shia Civil War
What part of China is the most populated and humid
What is the less populated Arid/Semi Arid and Highland part of China
What is the colder humid continental part of China, Korea, and Japan
What is the warmer Humid Subtropical part of China, Korea, and Japan
where is the majority of China's Muslim population
What is the Pinyin name for the yellow river
What is the Pinyin name for the Yangtze River
What alluvial plain of the Hung He is the agricultural center and cradle of Chinese civilizations
North China Plain
What ethnic group makes up 90% of China's population?
What is the long distance, pre-Colonial trade route for luxury goods moving west from China
Imperial China infrastructure built between its two largest rivers to moving agricultural products north
Territory that the British got for winning the Opium Wars against China that was returned to china in 1997
After the collapse of Imperial China the Nationalist republic of china under the leadership of __________________ was battling Communist forces under the leadership of __________________ when china was invaded and occupied by what foreign nation?
Communists took control of mainland China in what year? Driving the Nationalists where?
Describe "Two Koreas"
North Korea: Communist
South Korea: Democratic
Divided at the 38th parallel by the DMZ
What other country was divided into a north and south? Communists won in 1975?
Who reformed China
What contested body of water is China trying to control?
South China Sea
What countries are on the Strait of Malacca
What mountain range is in Afghanistan
What mountain range is in Pakistan and India
What mountain range is in India, Nepal and Bhutan
What climate exists in the Deccan Plateau
Tropical Wet/Dry (savanna)
What climate exists in the Indus Valley
What climate exists in the Ganges Valley
What climate exists in Bangladesh.
What climate exists in Pakistan
What climate exists in Afghanistan
What is the oldest ethnic religion indigenous to India
What is the universal religion founded by Prince Siddhartha and spread to other places
What religion arrived to South Asia with the rise of the Mughal empire
What is the dominant religion in India
What is the dominant religion in Pakistan
What is the dominant religion in Bangladesh
What is the dominant religion in Sri Lanka
What is the dominant religion in Afghanistan
What European power dominated India during European Colonialism
How did the 1947 Partitoning split India
What country was Bangladesh a part of
What province have India and Pakistan fought over several times? What river runs through it?
How is Pakistan's population divided up?
What is the Durand Line?
border between Pakistan and Afghanistan
What Baluchistan port is crucial for pipelines, highways and railways being built between Pakistan and _________?
Mujahdeen overthrew what country in Pakistan?
Who came to rule Pakistan after the Soviet Union left and what happened as a result
They invited Al-Queda in to plan the 9/11 terrorist attacks
Although the Himalays divide China and India what is China pressuring India to do
not support independence for Tibet
What is the timeline of South Asian Civilizations
1. 1500 BCE--Rise of Hinduism
2. 400 BCE---Buddha
3. 321-185 BCE
--Buddhism was state religion . Spread of Buddhism
4. 1526-1857--Mughal Empire. Islam comes to N. India. Turkish muslims from Persia
5. 1857-1947---British Raj. European Colonalism
6. 1947 Partitioning of India into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India
What are class are radical Muslims? What percentage do they make up?
0.1% of Muslim population
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