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Medical Terminology - week 2

STUDY
PLAY
aden
gland
adip
fat
anter
before, front
caud
lower part of the body, tail
cephal
head
cyt
cell
end, endo
in, within, inside
exo
out of, outside, away from
hist
tissue
ologist
specialist
ology
the science or study of
path
disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
plasia
development, growth, formation
poster
behind, toward the back
stasis
control, maintenance of a constant level
abdominal cavity
Contains primarily the major organ of digestion. This cavity is frequently referred to simply as the abdomin.
adenectomy
The surgical removal of a gland.
adenocarcinoma
is a malignant tumor that originates its glandular tissue
adenoma
is a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue
adenomalacia
is the abnormal softening of a gland.
adenosclerosis
is the abnormally hardening of a gland
anaplasia
is a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
anatomy
The study of the structures of the body.
anomaly
is a deviation from what is regarded as normal
anterior
Means situated in the front.
aplasia
is the defective development, or the cogenital absence of an organ or tissue
bloodborne transmission
is the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fludis that are contaminated with blood
caudal
Means toward the lower part of the body.
cephalic
Means toward the head.
chromosomes
are the genetic structures located within the nucleas of each cell
communicable disease
is any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects.
cogenital disorder
is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth.
cytoplasm
is the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
distal
Means situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure.
dorsal
Refers to the back of the organ or body.
dysplasia
is abnormal development of growth of cells, tissues, or organs
endemic
fers to the ongoing presence of a disease with a population, groups, or area
endocrine glands
which produce hormones, do not have ducts.
epidemic
is a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area
epigastric region
Is located above the stomach.
ethology
is the study of the causes of disease.
exocrine glands
such as the sweat glands, secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
functional disorder
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
genetic disorder
also known as hereditary disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene.
geriatrician
a physician who specializes in the care of older people
hemophilia
is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing.
histology
is the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
homeostasis
The process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
hyperplasia
is the englargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
hypertrophy
is a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues
hypogastric region
is located below the stomach
hypoplasia
is the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
iatrogenic illness
is an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment.
idiopathic disorder
is an illness without known cause
infectious disease
is an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bateria and viruses
inguinal
pertaining to the groin
medial
Means the direction toward, or nearer, the midline.
mesentery
is a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interal abdominal wall
midsagittal plane
is the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
nosocomial infection
is a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.
pandemic
refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
pelvic cavity
Is the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
peritoneum
is a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdomin cavity.
periotonitis
is the inflammation of the peritoneum
phenyllketonuria
which is commonly known as PKU, is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalaine hydroxylase is missing.
physiology
The study of the functions of the structures of the body.
posterior
Means situated in the back.
proximal
Means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.
retroperitoneal
means located behind the peritoneum (retro means behind and periton means peritoneum, and eal means pertaining to)
stem cells
are unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.
thoracic cavity
Is also known as the chest cavity or throat, surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs. The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the thoratic and abdominal cavities.
transverse plane
Is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
umbilicus
is commonly known as the belly button
vector-borne transmission
is the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector, such as flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, and dogs
ventral
Refers to the front or belly side, of the organ or body.
anatomic position
Describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position - standing up straight and holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms turned toward the front.
vertical plane
Is the up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon
midsagittal plane
Is the sagittal plane that divices the body into equal left and right halves.
sagittal plane
Is a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
frontal plane
Is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
horizontal plane
Is a flat crosswire plane, such as the horizon.
transverse plane
Is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
superior
Means uppermost, above, or toward the head
inferior
Means lowermost, below, or toward the feel
lateral
Means the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline
dorsal cavity
Is located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two portions: the cranial cavity and the spinal davity
cranial cavity
Is located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain.
spinal cavity
Is located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord.
ventral cavity
Is located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.
abdominopelvic cavity
Refers to abdomino and pelvic cavity as a single unit.
inguinal
Means relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen.
hypochondriac regions
Are located on the left side and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs - means below the ribs
hypo
means below
chondr/i
means cartrilage
lumbar regions
are located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine
ac, al, ar, eal
means pertaining to
umbilical region
surrounds the umbilicus, which is commonly known as the belly button or navel.
iliac regions
are located on the left and right side over the hip bones (ili means hip)
parietal peritoneum
is the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal walls
visceral peritoneum
is the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.
visceral
means relating to the internal organs
cytology
is the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
cell membrane
is the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
nucleus
is surrounded by the nuclear membrane. It is a structure within the cell that has two important functions (1) it controls the activities of the cell, and (2) it helps the cell divide
stem cells
are unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.
endocrine glands
which produce hormones, do not have ducts
genes
fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
genetics
is the study of how genes are transformed from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease
dominant gene
when it is is inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristics
recessive gene
when it is inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition, when only one parent has a normal gene, the offspring will not have the condition, although they will still have the same trait
genome
is the complete set of genetic information of an individual
DNA
is the abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid. Human DNA contains thousands of genes that provide the information essential for heredity, determining our physical appearane, disease risk, and other traits.
genetic mutation
is a change of the sequence of a DNA molecue. Potential causes of genetic mutation include exposure to radiation or environmental pollution.
cystic fibrosis
is a generic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digesive system
down syndrome
is a genetic variation that is associatd with characteristic facial appearane, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
hemophilia
is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing. This blood coagulation disorder is characterized by spontaneous hemmorrhage or severe bleeding following an injury
huntington's disease
is a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. Each child of a parent with the gene has a 50/50 chance of inheriting this defective gene. This condition causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife. this damage eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities.
muscular dystophy
is the term used to describe a group of geneic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
phenylketonuria
is commonly known as PKU - is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing. It can be detected by a blood test performed on infants at birth.
Tay-Sachs disease
is a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain.
tissue
is a group or layer of similarity specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions. The four main types are epithellial, connective, muscle, and nerve
histology
is the study of the structures, composition, and function of tissues
epithelial tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body. They also form glands
epithelium
is the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and surface layer of mucous membrane.
endothelium
is the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lympth vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
dense connective tissue
such as the bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body
adipose tissue
as known as fat, provides protective padding, insulation, and support