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Rio 40 Graus (1955)
"The most prominent film movement to arise as part of the cinema of liberation was Cinema Novo in Brazil. More than almost any other filmmaking practice, Cinema Novo embodied the multiple struggles and contradictions involved in the idea that cinema could be a force in transforming social policies and perceptions."

"In the late 1950s, young cinephiles in Rio de Janeiro began meeting at movie theaters and coffee houses. Intrigued by both Hollywood classics and contemporary European art films, the young men wrote articles calling for a change in filmmaking. Given opportunities in the commercial industry, they launched a movement: Cinema Novo, the Portuguese term for "New Cinema".

Cinema Novo films combined history and myth, personal obsessions and social problems, documentary realism and surrealism, modernism and folklore. In mixing populist nationalism, political criticism, and stylistic innovation, Cinema Novo recalled the Brazilian Modernist movement of the 1920s. It also chimed well with contemporary literary experiments and Augusto Boal's Theater of the Oppressed. The young directors became a link between the western new cinemas of the early 1960s and later Third World movements.

Barravento (1962)
The most populous country in South America, Brazil had a topography stretching from drought-parched areas to tropical beaches. Its population included groups of African, Amerindian, European, and Far Eastern descent. Through a policy of "developmental nationalism," President Joao Goulart sought to unify and modernize the country. His plan for achieving industrial capitalism required that people recognize the country's backwardness. Although under fire from both right and left, Goulart supported many liberal cultural initiatives. Cinema Novo was one such effort.

The worldwide popularity of samba and bossa nova music and the building of the modernistic capital Brasilia helped promote Cinema Novo as the expression of an energetic, modernizing country. More concretely, the films were oriented toward Goulart's ideology of consciousness raising. They show peasant Brazilians oppressed by illiteracy, subsistence living, and military and clerical rule.

President Goulart's reforms aroused fears in conservative circles. In 1964, the military seized power. For more than two decades afterward, Brazil was ruled by generals. However, the movement was not yet interrupted. Despite the authoritarian regime, politically critical art flourished. Cinema Novo directors continued to work, and new filmmakers entered the industry.

Cinco Vezes Favela (1962)
Several Cinema Novo directors reflected on the failure of the Goulart government. Their films often focus on the tormented intellectual, cut off from both the bourgeoisie and the people. Gustavo Dahl's O Bravo Guerreiro (The Brave Warrior, 1969) ends with an idealistic politician about to shoot himself in the mouth. Glauber Rocha gave this despair an extravagant treatment in Terra em transe (Land in Anguish, 1967). In the country of Eldorado, a political myth is played out within the delirious consciousness of a revolutionary poet. Terra em transe is a surrealistic interrogation of the artist's political role, culminating in an Eisensteinian sequence: while police fire at the poet, churchmen and businessmen hold a raucous celebration.

Vidas Secas (1963)
Despite the new regime, Brazilian film culture was advancing. Universities were starting film courses, an annual festival was begun in Rio, and new magazines appeared. The collapse of the Atlantida and Vera Cruz companies had seemed to end all prospects for a national film industry, but both Goulart and his military successors sponsored state initiatives aimed at rebuilding it. Legislation dictated tax exemptions, uniform ticket prices, and bigger screen quotas for the local product. The Grupo Executivo da Industria Cinematografica (GEICINE) was created in 1961 to coordinate film policy. In 1966, GEICINE was absorbed into the Instituto Nacional do Cinema (INC), which supported production through loans and prizes. Cinema Novo had a strong influence on the agency. The INC also assisted coproductions, which sharply increased national film output. This expansion was aided by an abrupt turn of political events. As inflation increased in 1967 and 1968, so did strikes and protests. A second coup took place, installing hard-line generals. They pushed through legislation curtailing civil liberties and dissolving political parties. Leftist forces launched urban guerrilla war, and, between 1969 and 1973, Brazil was a battleground between terrorists and the military regime.

Film Styles
British New Wave
Cinema Novo
Cinéma vérité
Film Noir
French Impressionism
German Expressionism
Italian Neorealism
Nouvelle Vague
Screwball Comedy
Soviet Montage
Surrealist Cinema

Web Resources
Film Reference
MUBI Europe

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As part of the military government's plan to centralize cultural activities, film policy was recast. Censorship became much stiffer. In 1969, an agency was created to control filmmaking. Empresa Brasileira de Filmes (Embrafilme) was charged with organizing film export and financing production, much as France's CNC did. Through low-interest loans to successful firms, Embrafilme helped boost production to a postwar high of ninety-one films in 1971. The agency would eventually absorb the INC and fuel Brazil's export success in the 1980s." [3]

Themes and Styles
After a preparatory period running roughly from 1954 to 1960, Cinema Novo can be divided into three sequential phases that differ in theme, style and subject matter: a first phase going from 1960 to 1964, a second phase running from 1964 to 1968, and a third phase running from 1968 to 1972. After 1972, it becomes increasingly difficult to speak of Cinema Novo; one must speak, rather, of Brazilian Cinema. There is little disagreement among film critics about this time frame.

Rio Zona Norte (1957)
Filmmaker Carlos Diegues claims that while lack of funds lowered the technical precision of Cinema Novo films, it also allowed directors, writers and producers to have an unusual amount of creative freedom. "Because Cinema Novo is not a school, it has no established style," states Diegues. "In Cinema Novo, expressive forms are necessarily personal and original without formal dogmas." This directorial freedom, along with the changing social and political climate in Brazil, caused Cinema Novo to experience shifts in form and content in a short amount of time.

The first signs of a new awakening in Brazilian cinema occurred several years before the official beginnings of the movement, specifically with Nelson Pereira dos Santos' Rio 40 Graus (Rio 40 Degrees, 1955). Its independent production and its critical stance toward established social structures marked a decisive step toward a new kind of cinema. It is difficult to overestimate the contribution of Nelson Pereira dos Santos to Brazilian cinema. His practical contribution to the formation of Cinema Novo includes, besides Rio 40 Graus, the film Rio Zona Norte (Rio, Northern Zone, 1957), the production of Roberto Santos' O Grande Momento (The Grand Moment, 1958), and the editing of several early Cinema Novo films like Rocha's Barravento (The Turning Wind, 1962) and Leon Hirszman's Pedreira de Sâo Diego (Stone Quarry Sao Diego, 1961). The latter was incorporated into the feature-length Cinco vezes Favela (Slum Times Five, 1961), an early landmark of Cinema Novo, produced by the leftist Centers for Popular Culture of the National Students' Union, whose goal was to create through cultural production a link with the working class.

"Like many New Wave directors before them, Brazil's filmmakers first tried their hands at short films. Ruy Guerra, Glauber Rocha, and Joaquim Pedro de Andrade made shorts while they were in their teens and early twenties. The anthology film Slum Times Five (1962) included episodes by Carlos Diegues, de Andrade, and others. Within a year, distinctive Cinema Novo features began to appear. Drawing on stylistic resources of other new cinemas - hand-held camera, zoom shots, plans-sequences, underplayed dramatic moments, temps morts, ambiguous leaps between fantasy and reality - these directors turned out politically critical works." [3]

First Phase (1960-1964)

Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964)
"In calling on the Brazilian film industry to dispense with the chanchada (musical comedies inspired by Hollywood musicals but rooted in the Brazilian carnival and burlesque theater) that were its staple, the movement's founder, Glauber Rocha, urged film-makers to harness the techniques of Neo-Realism and the Nouvelle Vague to indigenous folklore and Marxist principle in order to produce analyses of the nation's socio-economic plight." [1]

The initial phase of Cinema Novo extends from 1960 to 1964. It is in this period that Cinema Novo coalesced as a movement, making its first feature films and formulating its political and esthetic ideas. The journal Metropolitano of the Metropolitan Students' Union became a forum for critics like David Neves and Sérgio Augusto and for filmmakers like Glauber Rocha and Carlos Diegues. The directors shared their opposition to commercial Brazilian cinema, to Hollywood films and Hollywood esthetics, and to Brazilian cinema's colonization by Hollywood distribution chains. In their desire to make independent non-industrial films they drew on two foreign models: Italian Neo-Realism, for its use of non-professional actors and location shooting, and the French New Wave, not so much for its thematics or esthetics, but rather as a production strategy. While scornful of the politics of the New Wave — "We were making political films when the New Wave was still talking about unrequited love," Ruy Guerra once said — they borrowed its strategy of low-budget independently-produced films based on the talent of specific auteurs. Most important, these directors saw filmmaking as political praxis, a contribution to the struggle against neocolonialism. Rather than exploit the tropical paradise conviviality of chanchada, or the just-like-Europe classiness of Vera Cruz studio, the Cinema Novo directors searched out the dark corners of Brazilian life - the favelas (slums) and the sertao (backlands) - the places where Brazil's social contradictions appeared most dramatically.

Os Fuzis (1964)
The most important films of the first phase of Cinema Novo include Cinco vezes Favela (Slum Times Five); the short Arraial do Cabo (1960) and the feature Porto das Caixas (Port of Caixas, 1962) by Paulo César Saraceni; Barravento (The Turning Wind, 1962) and Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (Black God, White Devil, 1964) by Glauber Rocha; Os Cafajestes (The Hustlers, 1962) and Os Fuzis (The Guns, 1964), by Mozambican-born Ruy Guerra; Ganga Zumba (1963), by Carlos Diegues, and Vidas Secas (Barren Lives, 1963), by Nelson Pereira dos Santos.

The films of this phase deal typically, although not exclusively, with the problems confronting the urban and rural lumpen-proletariat: starvation, violence, religious alienation and economic exploitation. The films share a certain political optimism, characteristic of the developmentalist years, but due as well to the youth of the directors, a kind of faith that merely showing these problems would be a first step toward their solution. Barravento exposed the alienating role of religion in a fishing community. The Guns and Barren Lives dealt with the oppression of peasants by landowners, while Black God, White Devil demystified the twin alienations of millennial cults (the black god) and of apolitical cangaceiro violence (the white devil). Ganga Zumba memorialized the 17th Century slave republic of Palmares and called, by historical analogy, for a revolt of the oppressed against their oppressors. Made for the people by an educated, middle-class, radical elite, these films occasionally transmitted a paternalistic vision of the Brazilian masses. In Barravento, as critic Jean-Claude Bernardet points out, political salvation comes from the city; it is not generated by the community.

Esthetically, these "sad, ugly, desperate films", combining slow, reflexive rhythms with uncompromising, often harsh, images and sounds, and showed a commitment to what Rocha's 1965 manifesto called An Esthetic of Hunger: "the hunger of Latin America is not simply an alarming symptom: it is the essence of our society. ... [Cinema Novo's] originality is [Latin Americans'] hunger and our greatest misery is that this hunger is felt but not intellectually understood."

Second phase (1964-1968)

Terra em Transe (1967)
In 1964, popular Democratic President Joao Goulart was removed from office by military coup, turning Brazil into a military-run autocracy under new President Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli. Brazilians consequently lost faith in the ideals of Cinema Novo, as the movement had promised to protect civilian rights yet had failed to uphold democracy. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquin Pedro de Andrade blamed fellow directors, whom he claimed had lost touch with Brazilians while appealing to critics: "For a film to be a truly political instrument," de Andrade said, "it must first communicate with its public." Second-phase Cinema Novo thus sought to both deflect criticism and to address the "anguish" and "perplexity" that Brazilians felt after Goulart was ousted. It did this by producing films that were "analyses of failure - of populism, of developmentalism, and of leftist intellectuals" to protect Brazilian democracy. Paulo César Saraceni's O Desafio (The Challange, 1965), Rocha's Terra em Transe (Land in Anguish, 1967), Gustavo Dahl's O Bravo Guerreiro (The Brave Warrior, 1968), and dos Santos' Fome de Amor (Hunger for Love, 1968) all dissect the failures of the left.

Although the left, unprepared for armed struggle, was politically and militarily defeated in 1964, its cultural presence, paradoxically, remained strong even after the coup d'etat, exercising a kind of hegemony despite the dictatorship. Marxist books proliferated in the bookstores, anti-imperialist plays drew large audiences, and many filmmakers went from left reformism to radical critique. One senses in these films an angry disillusionment with what Roberto Schwarz calls the populist deformation of Marxism, a Marxism that was strong on anti-imperialism but weak on class struggle. The contradictory class-alliances of left populism are satirized in Rocha's Land in Anguish, where pompous senators and progressive priests, Party intellectuals and military leaders, samba together in what Rocha calls the tragic carnival of Brazilian politics.

O Bravo Guerreiro (1969)
If the films of the first phase displayed - Glauber Rocha being the obvious exception - a commitment to realism as a style, the films of the second phase tend toward self-referentiality and anti-illusionism. While the films of the first phase tended to be rural in their setting, films of the second phase were predominantly urban.

During the second phase of Cinema Novo, filmmakers realized that although their cinema was "popular" in that it attempted to take the point of view of "the people," it was not popular in the sense of having a mass audience. Although the policy of low-budget independent production seemed sound, nothing could guarantee the films' being shown in a market dominated by North American conglomerates. If the masses were often on the screen, they were rarely in the audience. The filmmakers linked to Cinema Novo consequently began to see the making of popular films as, in Gustavo Dahl's words, "the essential condition for political action in cinema." In cinema as in revolution, they decided, everything is a question of power, and for cinema existing within a system to which it does not adhere, power means broad public acceptance and financial success.

As a result, some auteurs began to move away from the so-called 'aesthetics of hunger' toward a filmmaking style and themes designed to attract the interest of the cinema-going public at large. As a result, the first Cinema Novo film to be shot in color and to depict middle-class protagonists was released during this time: Leon Hirzshman's Garota de Ipanema (Girl from Ipanema, 1968). Joaquim Pedro de Andrade's Macunaíma (1969), however, was the first Cinema Novo film to be truly popular both in cultural and box-office terms, offering a dialectical demonstration of how to reach the public while aggressively advocating a left political vision of Brazilian society — and this in a situation of intense repression.

Third Phase (1968-1972)

Macunaíma (1969)
Macunaíma is generally classified as part of the third phase of Cinema Nova, the so-called "cannibal-tropicalist" phase. Tropicalism, and the aesthetics of garbage dominated the third phase of Cinema Novo. Cannibalism, inspired by the modernist movement of the 1920s, was a nationalist strategy of cultural antiimperialism, according to which the culture imposed by the First World should be devoured, digested, and recycled according to local needs. "Cannibalism is an exemplary mode of consumerism adopted by underdeveloped peoples," wrote Joaquim Pedro de Andrade for the presentation of Macunaíma.

Tropicalism, though conceptually related to cannibalism, is a complex Brazilian variant of pop with which a growing number of avant-garde musicians, writers, artists, and theater and film directors identify themselves. Tropicalism emphasized the grotesque and the gaudy, bad taste and kitsch. It played aggressively with certain myths, especially the notion of Brazil as a tropical paradise characterized by colorful exuberance and tutti-fruti hats á la Carmen Miranda. The movement was not without its ambiguities. Roberto Schwarz, a Brazilian intellectual then living in Paris, interpreted the movement in an article published in Les Temps Modernes, Remarque sur la Culture et la Politique au Brésil, 1964-1969. Tropicalism, he suggests, emerges from the tension between the superficial "modernization" of the Brazilian economy and its archaic, colonized and imperialized core. While the Brazilian economy, after 1964, was becoming even more integrated into the world capitalist economy, the petite bourgeoisie, threatened by economic marginalization, was returning to antiquated values and old resentments.

O Bandido da Luz Vermelha (1968)
Concurrent with the third phase of Cinema Novo, there emerged a radically different tendency - Udigrudi, the Brazilian pronunciation of underground. Just when Cinema Novo decided to reach out for a popular audience, the Underground opted to slap that audience in the face. If the public did not appreciate "the most interesting films on this planet," Júlio Bressane shouted, "too bad for you, idiots." As Cinema Novo moved toward technical polish and production values, the Novo Cinema Novo, as it also came to be called, demanded a radicalization of the esthetics of hunger, rejecting the dominant codes of well-made cinema in favor of a "dirty screen" and "garbage" esthetics. A garbage style, they argued, is appropriate to a Third World country picking through the leavings of an international system dominated by monopoly capitalism. O Bandido da Luz Vermelha (The Red Light Bandit, Rogerio Sganzerla, 1968), Matou a Familia e Foi ao Cinema (Killed the Family and Went to the Cinema, Julio Bresanne, 1969), and Bangue-Bangue (Bang Bang, Andrea Tonacci, 1971) follow this line of breaking the codes, mixing genres, transgressing morals, and dumping Cinema Novo's revolutionary optimism within corrosive nihilism. The Underground proclaimed its own isolation in the names they gave their movement: marginal cinema, subterranean cinema. Although they were intentionally marginal, identifying socially downward with rebellious lumpen characters, they were also marginalized, harassed by the censors and boycotted by exhibitors.

Toward the end of the third phase, Cinema Novo entered into a politically-engendered crisis of creativity which reached its nadir in 1971-1972. As censorship and repression worsened, Glauber Rocha, Ruy Guerra and Carlos Diegues left Brazil for Europe. As funding became more problematic, several directors undertook co-productions with other countries or financed their projects completely abroad.

End of Cinema Novo
Burnes St. Patrick Hollyman, son of famed American photographer Thomas Hollyman, states that "by 1970, many of the cinema novo films had won numerous awards at international festivals." In 1970 Rocha published a manifesto on the progress of Cinema Novo, in which he said he was pleased that Cinema Novo "had gained critical acceptance as part of world cinema" and had become "a nationalist cinema that accurately reflected the artistic and ideological concerns of the Brazilian people." But Rocha also warned filmmakers and consumers that being too complacent in the achievements of Cinema Novo would return Brazil to its pre-Cinema Novo state:

The movement is bigger than any one of us. But the young should know that they cannot be irresponsible about the present and the future because today's anarchy can be tomorrow's slavery. Before long, imperialism will start to exploit the newly created films. If the Brazilian cinema is the palm tree of Tropicalism, it is important that the people who have lived through the drought are on guard to make sure that Brazilian cinema doesn't become underdeveloped.
Rocha's fears were realized. In 1977, filmmaker Carlos Diegues said that "one can only talk about Cinema Novo in nostalgic or figurative terms because Cinema Novo as a group no longer exists, above all because it has been diluted into Brazilian cinema." Toward the end of Cinema Novo, the Brazilian government created film company Embrafilme to encourage production of Brazilian cinema; but Embrafilme mostly produced films that ignored the Cinema Novo ideology. Aristides Gazetas claims that Third Cinema now carries on the Cinema Novo tradition.

Major Directors
Glauber Rocha

The most widely known Cinema Novo filmmaker was Glauber Rocha (1938-1981), who also formulated one of the movement's manifestos in a brief 1965 essay, An Esthetic of Hunger. There he speaks of Cinema Novo as "these sad, ugly films, these screaming, desperate films where reason does not always prevail," yet that "will ultimately make the public aware of its own misery."

Glauber Rocha
"Born in Bahia in north-east Brazil, he entered cinema through the film clubs when he was 16, studied law for two years, set up a production company, made a number of shorts, moved to Rio where he joined the group around Nelson Pereira dos Santos (whom he called the father of Cinema Novo), and directed his first feature in 1962." [2]

"Rocha's reputation rests on four films he made in the 1960s before going into exile from Brazil in 1970: Barravento (The Turning Wind, but known by its original title, 1962), Deus e a Diabo na Terra do Sol (Black God, White Devil, 1964), Terra em Transe (originally released in English as Land of Anguish, but more recently known by a more literal translation, Earth Entranced, 1967), and O Dragão da Maldade contra o Santo Guerreiro (1969; known in English by its original title, Antonio das Mortes, the name of its lead character).

Barravento is often regarded as Rocha's best film, an understandable though problematic judgment, since the director claimed that he was working on the film only as a producer until the original writer-director left the project at midpoint and he stepped in to finish it. Formally the most traditional of Rocha's films, Barravento concerns the lives of black men and women in a fishing community in Bahia, in Brazil's impoverished northwest. It depicts the economic exploitation of the fishermen in terms similar to Visconti's La terra trema but gives greater attention to the music, myths, and folk religious practices of Afro-Brazilian culture. The film seems clearly Rocha's in inaugurating what was to become a pervasive theme in his work-the possibility of unexpected transformation, of a world turned upside down. The notion of 'the turning wind' is defined in an opening epigraph: "Barravento is the moment of violence when sea and earth become changed, when life, love and social standing may be subjected to sudden change." [4]

"In Aesthetics of Hunger, Rocha argued that the originality of Cinema Novo lay in its revelation that "violence is normal behaviour for the starving" and "the moment of violence is the moment when the colonizer becomes aware of the existence of the colonized." Accordingly the aesthetics of hunger are directed against the values of the cinema of imperialism and in Rocha's hands the result is a style which eschews narratiye clarity in favour of violent expressive imagery.

Antonio das Mortes (1969)
Combining the intellectual influence of the French politique des auteurs and the thinking of Che Guevara and Frantz Panon, stylistically speaking Rocha's work bears strong relation to both Godard and Pasolini, with its jagged and abrupt montage, constant play of shifting oppositions, and often theatrical mise-en-scene; in Rocha's case this is partly Brechtian and partly ritualistic, inspired by Afro-Brazllian religion." [2]

These hallmarks are first found in Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (Black God, White Devil, 1964), which he directed at the age of twenty-five. "In this cinematic allegory, a young man named Manuel kills his boss and then flees with his wife, Rosa, to follow the messianic preacher Sebastiao and meets the notorious hired gun, or jagunço, Antonio das Mortes. What follows is a series of brutal encounters that suggest that only violence will help those who are sorely oppressed, a theme Rocha embellished in O Dragao da Maldade contra o Santo Guerreiro (Antonio das Mortes, 1969), his first film in color, in which the hit man of Black God, White Devil becomes a hero by joining a peasant war against a brutal landlord." [5]

"Land of Anguish/Earth Entranced, made between the two backlands films, is concerned with Brazilian intellectual life, which Cinema Novo filmmakers began to examine after the 1964 military coup. It focuses on a poet who aspires to be active and influential as a journalist and adviser to politicians. In the opening sequence, after a coup has ousted his allies, the poet impulsively refuses to concede defeat He drives through a police blockade and is mortally wounded. The film's central section is a flashback retrospective of his political life, leading up to the crisis with which it began. Exploring the relationship between art and power, it chronicles the failure of an intellectual who played the political game, rather than, as Antonio das Mortes advised, fighting with ideas." [4]

"The Marxist implications of Rocha's cinema are hard to miss; sick of a society that placated its citizens with an endless procession of genre films and chanchada, he posited the existence of a cinema that would instruct and enlighten the public. But political conditions in Brazil meant that he was always working in an unstable environment, and he left Brazil to work abroad, making one of his finest late films, Der Leone Have Sept Cabeças (The Lion Has Seven Heads, 1971), on location in the Congo with Jean-Pierre Léaud in a pivotal role as a possessed cleric" [5] and Cabezas cortadas (Cutting Heads, 1970). "The long documentary História do Brasil (1973) suggested for some critics a loss of ideological clarity, while a film for Italian television in 1975 called Claro failed to make any impression. Making his peace with the Generals and returning to Brazil in 1975, his last film was A Idade da Terra (The Age of the Earth, 1980), a visually dazzling tapestry which preaches a utopian union of Catholicism, revolution and primitivism." [2]

Nelson Pereira dos Santos

Nelson Pereira dos Santos
"The filmmaker whose work most strikingly represents the shift from neorealism to 'tropicalism' is Nelson Pereira dos Santos (b. 1928). A decade older than Rocha, he made documentaries and features in the 1950s and worked as an editor on Barravento. His Vidas Secas (Barren Lives, 1963) dramatized the 'aesthetics of hunger' that Rocha later proclaimed. Based on a classic 1930s novel of the northwest backlands, the film depicts a poor family's struggle to survive in the face of economic exploitation, police oppression, and a harsh environment. Though the novel was compared to John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, the film has closer affinities to Italian neorealism, which dos Santos acknowledged. Fabiano, the father of Barren Lives, is akin to Antonio, the father of Ladri di biciclette (1948), both well-meaning men overwhelmed by circumstances, fading into oblivion in an inhospitable world.

By 1971, dos Santos was challenging European culture in Como Era Gostoso a Meu Frances (How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman). Set in the sixteenth century, and shot in color largely with a handheld camera, the film presents tropicalism in its native state, witb its tribal men and women unclothed. A French man is captured by a tribe and made a slave, prior to the time wben he will be killed and eaten. The film presents moments of brutality and of fellowsbip in the encounter between European "civilization" and tropical "primitivism", while emphasizing through periodic intertitles Europe's colonial discourse of racial superiority. Conditioned by familiar narrative conventions about a lone hero among strange peoples, the spectator awaits a happy ending: his deliverance, perhaps accompanied by his native wife. But the wife blocks his escape, and the happy ending belongs to the tribe. Cannibalism is a social fact, rather than the grisly shock Godard made it in Week End, and also a metaphor: Europe's presence in the new world has been "digested" and turned into something no longer recognizable as European." [4]

Carlos Diegues

Carlos Diegues
One of the first filmmakers to define Cinema Novo in 1962 as part of a larger cultural movement transforming Brazilian society, Carlos Diegues (b. 1940) was also one of the first to declare its dilution into Brazilian cinema. A staunch supporter of auteur cinema, Diegues believed that Cinema Novo's social commitment and political criticism would be possible only through unqualified artistic freedom, cinematic heterodoxy, and cultural pluralism. This conception of Cinema Novo as a collective of individual artists more than as an aesthetic school led him to explore very different cinematic styles, from his neorealist, pseudoethnographical, and didactic films of the 1960s, unmistakably related to the first phase of Cinema Novo and its aesthetic of hunger, to his embrace in the 1970s of Tropicalism's spectacular aesthetics and his denunciation of the submission of art to party politics, or what was called the "ideological patrols."

His first professional films, Escola de samba, alegria de viver (Samba School, Joy of Living, 1962, a segment of Cinco vezes favela, or Slums Five Times) and Ganga Zumba (1963), frame Diegues's thematic and aesthetic concerns: the recovery of the historical roots and the contemporary expressions of Afro-Brazilian culture, and its influence on popular music (samba), religion (candomble), and carnival. In Quilombo (1984), he returned to these themes, this time in the form of a spectacular super-production that further stressed the mythical elements of the story. Xica da Silva (1976), a carnivalesque rendition of historical events in colonial Brazil, tells the story of a female slave who shapes politics and the economy through sex, fantasy, and eroticism. The film, which sparked a fertile national debate on the issue of 'the popular', became a box-office hit. Its music, dances, eroticism, and carnivalization of traditions and reversal of history all fit into the commercial formula of Tropicalism.

Diegues's lengthy filmography also includes A grande cidade (The Big City, 1966), Os herdeiros (The Heirs, 1970), and Joanna Francesa (Joanna the Frenchwoman, 1975). Bye Bye Brasil (1980), his first film to be a commercial success abroad, is perhaps Diegues's most complex film, both thematically and theoretically. The film shows a country caught between uneven and incomplete modernization and cornered by economic globalization. It is perhaps one of the funniest and saddest reflections on the cultural impact of globalization on Latin American culture, including its films.
he Grupo Cine Liberación ("The Liberation Film Group") was an Argentine film movement that took place during the end of the 1960s. It was founded by Fernando Solanas, Octavio Getino and Gerardo Vallejo (1942-2007). The Grupo Cine Liberación became linked to the Peronist Left, and in later years, other films directors (grupo Realizadores de Mayo, Enrique and Nemesio Juárez, Pablo Szir, etc.) revolved around this activist core
Along with Raymundo Gleyzer's Cine de la Base in Argentina, the Brazilian Cinema Novo, the Cuban revolutionary cinema and the Bolivian film director Jorge Sanjinés, the Grupo Cine Liberación was part of the Tercer Cine movement.[3] The name of Tercer Cine (or Third Cine, in an obvious allusion to the Third World) was explicitly opposed to "First World" cinema, that is, Hollywood, and was also contrasted with auteur film, deciding to engage itself more explicitly in the social and political movements.
From his exile in Francoist Spain, Juan Peron sent in 1971 two letters to Octavio Getino, one congratulating him for this work of liberation, and another concerning two documentaries that were to be done with him (La Revolución Justicialista and Actualización política y doctrinaria).[3]
The graphist Raimundo Ongaro, also founder of the CGT de los Argentinos (CGTA) trade-union, was also close to this movement.

from political repression. According to Lucio Mufud, the collective authorship movement of the 1960s and 1970s was "among other things, about erasing any authorial mark. It concerned itself, on the one hand, with protecting the militant creators from state repression. But it was also about having their voice coincide with the 'voice of the people.'[4]" Another similar group included the Grupo Cine de la Base (The Base Film Group), which included the film director Raymundo Gleyzer, who produced Los Traidores (The Traitors, 1973), and was later "disappeared" during the dictatorship.[5]
Both Grupo Cine Liberación and Grupo Cine de la Base were especially concerned with Latin American integration, neo-colonialism and advocated the use of violence as one of the alternative possible means against hegemonic power.[5]
La Hora de los hornos (1968)[edit]
In 1968, the Cuban film director Santiago Álvarez collaborated with Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas on the four-hour documentary La Hora de los hornos ("The Hour of the furnaces"), about foreign imperialism in South America. The title of the film itself comes from a writing by 19th Century Cuban poet and independence leader José Martí, who proclaimed, in an eponymous manifest, the need to start the independence war against Spain again.

Among the other subjects explored in this film were the musical and cultural scene in Latin America and the dictatorships which gripped the region - at the same time, several Latin American authors, including the Mexican Carlos Fuentes and the Argentine Julio Cortázar, initiated the Dictator Novel genre. The movie was diffused only in alternative circuits, both by choice and by censorship obligations.[5]

Ya es tiempo de violencia (1969)[edit]
In 1969, the film director Enrique Juárez thus anonymously produced Ya es tiempo de violencia (Now is the Time for Violence), mainly concerned with the events of the May 1969 Cordobazo riots and the assassination of the trade-unionist Augusto Vandor on 30 June 1969.[6] Other images included those of the massive funerals of Emilio Jáuregui, another trade-unionist shelled three days before Vandor's death during a demonstration in protest of Nelson Rockefeller's (owner of Miramax there) arrival to Argentina.[6]

The film, entirely made clandestinely, criticized Juan Carlos Onganía's dictatorship and the media's official discourse.[6] Ya es tiempo de violencia was thought to have been destroyed in the turmoil of the 1976 coup d'état and the "Dirty War," but a copy of it was in fact stored by the Cuban film institute Icaic.[6] In 2007, the film was brought back to Buenos Aires by Fernando Krichmar, a member of the Grupo Cine Insurgente (Insurgent Cine Group), and Aprocinain (Asociación para el Apoyo Patrimonial Audiovisual y la Cinemateca Nacional) made another copy of it to insure its preservation.[6]

In this film documentary, Enrique Juárez used a multiplicity of voice-overs (among which an anonymous narrator and an anonymous Peronist activist, among others) against censorship exerted by the hegemonic discourse[4] — the voices are in fact those of Juárez himself, the actor Héctor Alterio, etc.

The film itself was almost exclusively composed from media images, with the editing used to contradict the official discourse by using contradictory voices and images (i.e. a civil servant of Juan Carlos Onganía's dictatorship states that everything is well, contradicted by images showing the Cordobazo riots). Furthermore, the voice-over often address itself directly to the spectator, urging him to take action.[4]
[Made in Argentina in 1968, The Hour of the Furnaces (La hora de los hornos) is the film that established the paradigm of revolutionary activist cinema. "For the first time," said one of its writers, Octavio Getino, "we demonstrated that it was possible to produce and distribute a film in a non-liberated country with the specific aim of contributing to the political process of liberation
As S&S counts down to the September issue's once-a-decade poll to find the Greatest Film of All Time, French critic Nicole Brenez makes the case for one of the key revolutionary activist films of the 1960s, The Hour of the Furnaces

Made in Argentina in 1968, The Hour of the Furnaces (La hora de los hornos) is the film that established the paradigm of revolutionary activist cinema. "For the first time," said one of its writers, Octavio Getino, "we demonstrated that it was possible to produce and distribute a film in a non-liberated country with the specific aim of contributing to the political process of liberation." The film is not just an act of courage, it's also a formal synthesis, a theoretical essay and the origin of several contemporary image practices.
Working from within the Cine Liberación Group they formed with fellow documentarian Gerardo Vallejo, Getino and director Fernando Solanas made a 208-minute film divided into two parts (88 and 120 minutes) and three sections: Notes and Testimonies on Neocolonialism, Violence and Liberation (Part I/section 1); Act for Liberation (Part II/section 2); and Violence and Liberation (Part II/ section 3). Part II mainly consists of advocacy for the Argentinian politician Juan Péron and therefore does not concern us here. This article focuses entirely on Part I, the part that develops a critical analysis of the situation in the Latin American continent during the 1960s.
The Hour of the Furnaces: Notes and Testimonies on Neocolonialism, Violence and Liberation is a didactic essay organised into 14 chapters: 'Introduction'; 1) 'The History'; 2) 'The Country'; 3) 'Daily Violence'; 4) 'The Port City'; 5) 'The Oligarchy'; 6) 'The System'; 7) 'Political Violence'; 8) 'Neoracism'; 9) 'Dependence'; 10) 'Cultural Violence'; 11) 'Models'; 12) 'Ideological Welfare'; 13) 'The Choice'. In other words, the film conducts a comprehensive analysis of the history, geography, economy, sociology, ideology, culture, religion and daily life of Latin America. Each dimension and source of oppression is documented and pondered, as is each link between determinations and their consequences.
Headlines, captions and title cards punctuate the film like riffs in a musical composition. The quotations are from leaders of liberation struggles and inspirational figures from world history, such as the 19th-century Cuban revolutionary José Marti (the phrase "hour of the furnaces" is his), the radical activist Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz (Argentina), Che Guevara (Argentina/Cuba), Frantz Fanon (Martinique/Algeria) and Aimé Césaire (Martinique), among others. But perhaps the major structuring influence is the Peruvian revolutionary poet, philosopher and political leader José Carlos Mariátegui (1894-1930), whose analysis of Peru's situation was the first systematic attempt to adapt Marxist concepts and methodology to a Latin American context. The chapter headings of his Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (1928) prefigure the film's conceptual framework: 'The Economic Factor in Peruvian History', 'Colonial Economy', 'Regionalism and Centralism', 'The Land Problem', 'The Indian Problem', 'The Religious Factor' and 'The Literature of the Colony'.

The film was made clandestinely under a dictatorship, and signed by the Cine Liberación Group. Each screening was a risk and created a "liberated space, a decolonised territory" (in Getino's words), within which the film could be stopped for as long as necessary to allow discussions and debates (hence the compartmentalised structure). Argentinian scholar Mariano Mestman recalls that several screenings lead to military confrontations. To attend a screening was in itself a political act, transforming spectators into responsible historical subjects, not because they did or did not agree with the content of the film, but by virtue of the very decision to attend, despite the threat.

A demonstration and a lesson, The Hour of the Furnaces imports into cinema the affirmative aesthetics of the written political treatise. A collective ideal informs the whole film. It anticipates a liberated time. It's not the product of a single voice but of a chorus of poems (Marti, Césaire), manifestos (Fanon, Guevara, Castro, Juan José Hernández Arregui) and films (by Fernando Birri, Joris Ivens, Nemesio Juárez). It conjoins the powers of didacticism, poetry and agogy (the agogic qualities of a work concern its rhythmic, sensible, physical properties - a notion suggested by the French aesthetician Etienne Souriau). Stylistically, the film uses all possible audiovisual techniques, from flicker to contemplative sequence shots (for instance, the final three-minute shot that reproduces a picture of the dead Che Guevara's face with his eyes wide open), from collage to direct cinema, from blank screen to animated effects, from the rigours of the blackboard to the hallucinogenic properties of the fish-eye, from classical music to anglophone pop hits. Cinema is an arsenal and here all its weapons are unsheathed.
The film's elegant radicalism inspired many later visual essayists such as Chris Marker, the Dziga Vertov Group, the Cinéthique Group, Patricio Guzmán, Alexander Kluge and films such as The Spiral (1975) made by Armand Mattelart, Jacqueline Meppiel and Valérie Mayoux (with the help of Chris Marker). In fact the analysis of conditions in Chile found in The Spiral and Guzmán's The Battle of Chile (1977) can be considered fourth and fifth chapters of The Hour of the Furnaces.

A great tradition
The visual economic-political treatise is an important and rare form in cinema, one grounded in the theatrical agitprop tradition. Its historical highlights include Eisenstein's Strike (1925), Cavalcanti's Rien que les heures (1926), Dziga Vertov's The Sixth Part of the World (1926), René Vautier's Afrique 50 (1950), the Dziga Vertov Group's British Sounds, Pravda and Struggles in Italy (all 1969), Santiago Alvarez's Stone upon Stone (1970), I'm a Son of America... And I'm Indebted to It (1972), Raymundo Gleyzer and Cine de la Base's Mexico: The Frozen Revolution (1970), L.A. Newsreel's Repression (1970), the Cinéthique Group's A Whole Program (1976), Vautier, Brigitte Criton and Buana Kabue's Frontline (1976), Robert Kramer's Scenes from the Class Struggle in Portugal (1977) and Straub/Huillet's Too Early, Too Late (1982). The translation of an economic-political analysis into images remains a fascinating source of cinematic reinvention. In such a brilliant tradition, The Hour of the Furnaces stands out for its powerful balance between its strong literary structure and its many audiovisual innovations. These establish the film as a central reference for cinematic activism.

Such films give us the tools with which to understand, discuss and transform a historical situation: concepts (neocolonialism, imperialism, class struggle), logics (how to relate one phenomenon to another, for example the arts to neo-colonialism, religion to the economy, the working day to the nature of leisure) and proposals (slogans about revolution). In the context of the political responsibilities of culture and of film itself, The Hour of the Furnaces forms an indivisible diptych with Solanas and Getino's written essay Towards a Third Cinema: Notes and Experiences for the Development of a Cinema of Liberation in the Third World (1969). This text can be seen as a genesis, a generalisation and an extension of the film.
Towards a Third Cinema defines a triad that generates many new questions: industrial cinema (the first cinema); auteur cinema (the second cinema, an alibi and safety valve for the existing system); and guerrilla cinema (the third cinema, contesting the other cinemas and the world order they support, acting as the cinematic insurgent patrol in the armies of liberation fighting colonialism and imperialism). Third Cinema reinvented each constitutive element of film practice: production, organisation, aesthetics, art and audience. This manifesto emphasises the unfinished dimension of The Hour of the Furnaces: "Until now, we have put forward practical proposals but only loose ideas - just a sketch of the hypotheses born out of our first film The Hour of the Furnaces. We therefore don't pretend to present them as a sole or exclusive model but only as ideas which may be useful in the debate over the use of film in non-liberated countries
In October 1969 Jean-Luc Godard interviewed Solanas and Getino in Paris, and then published the following pronouncement in the Maoist magazine Cinéthique: "During the screening of an imperialist film, the screen sells the voice of the boss to the viewer; the voice flatters, represses or bludgeons. During the screening of a revisionist film, the screen is only the loudspeaker of a voice delegated by the people but which is no longer the voice of the people, for the people watch their own disfigured face in silence. During the screening of an activist film, the screen is just a blackboard or the wall of a school providing a concrete analysis of a concrete situation."
In 1984 Octavio Getino published Some Notes on the Concept of a 'Third Cinema', offering a precise depiction of the Latin American economic, political, military context and the relationships between the visual essay and the written one. Getino explains: "Cine Liberación was, before anything else, our fusion as intellectuals with the reality of the working class. This determined the tentative and inconclusive nature of our proposals... Both Solanas and myself, while making this film, amassed a considerable amount of theoretical material. It was for our own use, as reflections on our ongoing practical work. It was this material that we drew upon when we developed the theories which were published between 1969 and 1971."

Taking the Marxist concept of praxis seriously, The Hours of the Furnaces wages its battle not only on the Argentinian political front but also on the aesthetic and theoretical fronts. Considering its modest underground provenance and its growing historical influence, the film seems to have fought victoriously because it attacked all three areas with equal energy and ingenuity. As Jean-Luc Godard once said about Solzhenitsyn: "We already knew all about what he wrote, but he was listened to because he had style." The film's renewal of the economic-political treatise as cinematic form can be traced in many subsequent films whose activism operates through similarly diverse experimental energies: Godard's Le Rapport Darty (1989), Raoul Peck's Profit & Nothing But! Or Impolite Thoughts on the Class Struggle (2001), Erik Gandini's Surplus: Terrorized Into Being Consumers (2003), Alexander Kluge's Notes from Ideological Antiquity: Marx-Eisenstein-Capital (2008), Lech Kowalski's The End of the World Begins With One Lie (2010) or John Gianvito's Vapor Trail (Clark) (2010).

Having proved its power to inspire, The Hour of the Furnaces remains incendiary because it affirms its thesis as if it were throwing grenades, accepting that the wind of history drives some of the flames back towards the thrower. Among its arguments urging armed struggle there is one slogan, however, that's proving false in these times of lethal neoliberalism: "No social order commits suicide." Let's hope that some collective, somewhere in the world, is preparing the tinder.
...antiago Álvarez Román (March 18, 1919- May 20, 1998) was a Cuban filmmaker. He wrote and directed many documentaries about Cuban and American culture. His "nervous montage" technique of using "found materials," such as Hollywood movie clips, cartoons, and photographs,[1] is considered a precursor to the modern video clip.
He studied in the United States but in the mid-1940s returned to Cuba, where he worked as a music archivist in a television station and participated in Communist Party activities.[1] After the Cuban Revolution he became a founding member of the Cuban Film Institute (ICAIC) and directed its weekly Latin American Newsreel.
One of his most famous works, the short Now (1964) about racial discrimination in the USA, mixed news photographs and musical clips featuring singer/actress Lena Horne. Other well-known works included the anti-imperialist satire LBJ (1968) and 79 Springs (1969), a poetic tribute to Ho Chi Minh. In 1968, he collaborated with Octavio Getino and Fernando E. Solanas (members of Grupo Cine Liberación) on the four-hour documentary Hora de los hornos, about foreign imperialism in South America.
Among the other subjects he explored in his films were the musical and cultural scene in Latin America and the dictatorships which gripped the region.
The second chapter of French director Jean-Luc Godard's Histoire(s) du cinéma is dedicated to Álvarez, amongst others.[3]
He died of Parkinson's disease in Havana on May 20, 1998 and was buried there in the Colon Cemetery.
film black god, white devil 1964, and antonio des mortes 1969 set in barren northeastern region of the country, explore mythic folk roots of banditry and mystical religion and extreme poverty, had strange and haunting. worked in europe, and africa in an attempt to deal w problems o the third world.

.Cinema Novo is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s. It means 'New Cinema' in Portuguese, which is the official language of Brazil, the movement's "home".[1] Cinema Novo formed in response to class and racial unrest both in Latin America and the United States. Influenced by Italian neorealism and French New Wave, films produced under the ideology of Cinema Novo opposed traditional Brazilian cinema, which consisted primarily of musicals, comedies and Hollywood-style epics.[2] Glauber Rocha is widely regarded as Cinema Novo's most influential filmmaker.[3][4][5] Today, the movement is often divided into three sequential phases that differ in tone, style and content.
Cinema Novo should not be confused with Novo Cinema (sometimes also referred to as "Cinema Novo"), a film movement that arose in Portugal between 1963 and 1974.
In the 1950s, Brazilian cinema was dominated by chanchada (musicals, often comedic and "cheap"[6]), big-budget epics that imitated the style of Hollywood,[6] and "'serious' cinema" that Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues characterizes as "sometimes cerebral and often ridiculously pretentious."[7] This traditional cinema was supported by foreign producers, distributors and exhibitors. As the decade ended, young Brazilian filmmakers protested films they perceived as made in "bad taste and ... sordid commercialism, ... a form of cultural prostitution" that relied on the patronage of "an illiterate and impoverished Brazil."[7]
Latin American cinema became increasingly political. In the 1960s, Brazil was producing the most political cinema in the region. Brazil therefore became the natural "home of the Cinema Novo (New Cinema) movement".[5] Cinema Novo rose to prominence at the same time that progressive Brazilian Presidents Juscelino Kubitschek and later João Goulart took office and began to influence Brazilian popular culture. But it was not until 1959 or 1960 that 'Cinema Novo' emerged as a label for the movement.[6] According to Randal Johnson and Robert Stam, Cinema Novo officially began in 1960, with the start of its first phase.[8]
In 1961, the Popular Center of Culture, a subsidiary of the National Students' Union, released Cinco Vezes Favela, a film serialized in five episodes that Johnson and Stam claim to be "one of the first" products of the Cinema Novo movement.[9] The Popular Center of Culture (PCC) sought "to establish a cultural and political link with the Brazilian masses by putting on plays in factories and working-class neighborhoods, producing films and records, and by participating in literacy programs."[9] Johnson and Stam hold that "many of the original members of Cinema Novo" were also active members in the PCC who participated in the production of Cinco Vezes Favela.[9]

Brazilian filmmakers modeled Cinema Novo after genres known for subversiveness: Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Johnson and Stam further claim that Cinema Novo has something in common "with Soviet film of the twenties," which like Italian neorealism and French New Wave had "a penchant for theorizing its own cinematic practice."[10] Italian neorealist cinema often shot on location with nonprofessional actors and depicted working class citizens during the hard economic times following World War II. French New Wave drew heavily from Italian neorealism, as New Wave directors rejected classical cinema and embraced iconoclasm.
Some proponents of Cinema Novo were "scornful of the politics of the [French] New Wave", viewing its tendency to stylistically copy Hollywood as elitist.[2] But Cinema Novo filmmakers were largely attracted to French New Wave's use of auteur theory, which enabled directors to make low-budget films and develop personal fan bases.
Cinema Novo filmmaker Alex Viany describes the movement as having elements of participatory culture. According to Viany, while Cinema Novo was initially "as fluid and undefined" as its predecessor French New Wave, it required that filmmakers have a passion for cinema, a desire to use it to explain "social and human problems," and a willingness to individualize their work.[6]

Auteur theory also greatly influenced Cinema Novo. Although its three phases were distinct, Cinema Novo encouraged directors to emphasize their personal politics and stylistic preferences. As Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade explained to Viany in a 1966 interview:

In our films, the propositions, positions, and ideas are extremely varied, at times even contradictory or at least multiple. Above all they are increasingly free and unmasked. There exists a total freedom of expression. ... At first glance this would seem to indicate some internal incoherence within the Cinema Novo movement. But in reality I think it indicates a greater coherence: a more legitimate, truthful, and direct correspondence between the filmmaker--with his perplexities, doubts, and certainties--and the world in which he lives.[11]
Class struggle also informed Cinema Novo, whose strongest theme is the "aesthetic of hunger" developed by premiere Cinema Novo filmmaker Glauber Rocha in the first phase. Rocha wished to expose how different the standard of living was for rich Latin Americans and poor Latin Americans. In his 1965 essay "The Esthetic of Hunger," Rocha stated that "the hunger of Latin America is not simply an alarming symptom: it is the essence of our society. ... [Cinema Novo's] originality is [Latin Americans'] hunger[,] and our greatest misery is that this hunger is felt but not intellectually understood."[12] On this note, Wheeler Winston Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster hold that "[t]he Marxist implications of [Rocha's] cinema are hard to miss".[13]

Themes and style[edit]
Most film historians divide Cinema Novo into three sequential phases that differ in theme, style and subject matter. Stam and Johnson identify "a first phase going from 1960 to 1964," a second phase running "from 1964 to 1968," and a third phase running "from 1963 to 1972" (though they also claim the final phase concludes at "roughly" "the end of 1971").[14] There is little disagreement among film critics about this time frame.[15][16][17][18]

Filmmaker Carlos Diegues claims that while lack of funds lowered the technical precision of Cinema Novo films, it also allowed directors, writers and producers to have an unusual amount of creative freedom. "Because Cinema Novo is not a school, it has no established style," states Diegues. "In Cinema Novo, expressive forms are necessarily personal and original without formal dogmas".[7] This directorial freedom, along with the changing social and political climate in Brazil, caused Cinema Novo to experience shifts in form and content in a short amount of time.

First phase (1960-1964)[edit]
Films of the first phase represent the original motivation and goals of Cinema Novo. First-phase films were earnest in tone and rural in setting, dealing with social ills that affected the working class like starvation, violence, religious alienation and economic exploitation. They also addressed the "fatalism and stoicism" of the working class, which discouraged it from working to fix these problems.[18] "The films share a certain political optimism," write Johnson and Stam, "a kind of faith that merely showing these problems would be a first step toward their solution."[19]

Unlike traditional Brazilian cinema that depicted beautiful professional actors in tropical paradises, first-phase Cinema Novo "searched out the dark corners of Brazilian life--its favelas and its sertão--the places where Brazil's social contradictions appeared most dramatically."[2] These topics were supported by aesthetics that "were visually characterized by a documentary quality, often achieved by the use of a hand-held camera" and were shot "in black and white, using simple, stark scenery that vividly emphasized the harshness of the landscape".[18] Diegues contends that first-phase Cinema Novo did not focus on editing and shot-framing but rather on spreading a proletariat philosophy. "Brazilian filmmakers (principally in Rio, Bahia, and São Paulo) have taken their cameras and gone out into the streets, the country, and the beaches in search of the Brazilian people, the peasant, the worker, the fisherman, the slum dweller."[20]

Most film historians agree that Glauber Rocha, "one of the most well-known and prolific filmmakers to emerge in the late 1950s in Brazil",[21] was the most powerful advocate for Cinema Novo in its first phase. Dixon and Foster contend that Rocha helped initiate the movement because he wanted to make films that educated the public about social equality, art and intellectualism, which Brazilian cinema at the time did not do. Rocha summarized these goals by claiming his films used "aesthetics of hunger" to address class and racial unrest. In 1964, Rocha released Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol ("Black God, White Devil"), which he wrote and directed to "suggest that only violence will help those who are sorely oppressed".[5]

With Rocha at the helm during its first phase, Cinema Novo was praised by critics around the world.

Second phase (1964-1968)[edit]
In 1964, popular Democratic President João Goulart was removed from office by military coup, turning Brazil into a military-run autocracy under new President Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli. Brazilians consequently lost faith in the ideals of Cinema Novo, as the movement had promised to protect civilian rights yet had failed to uphold democracy. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade blamed fellow directors, whom he claimed had lost touch with Brazilians while appealing to critics: "For a film to be a truly political instrument," de Andrade said, "it must first communicate with its public".[22] Second-phase Cinema Novo thus sought to both deflect criticism and to address the "anguish" and "perplexity" that Brazilians felt after Goulart was ousted. It did this by producing films that were "analyses of failure--of populism, of developmentalism, and of leftist intellectuals" to protect Brazilian democracy.[23]

At this time, filmmakers also started trying to make Cinema Novo more profitable. Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw state that second-phase directors "recognized the irony in making so-called 'popular' films, to be viewed only by university students and art-house aficionados. As a result, some auteurs began to move away from the so-called 'aesthetics of hunger' toward a filmmaking style and themes designed to attract the interest of the cinema-going public at large."[24] As a result, the first Cinema Novo film to be shot in color and to depict middle-class protagonists was released during this time: Leon Hirzshman's Garota de Ipanema ("Girl from Ipanema," 1968).

Third phase and Novo Cinema Novo (1968-1972)[edit]
Hans Proppe and Susan Tarr characterize Cinema Novo's third phase as "a mixed bag of social and political themes against a backdrop of characters, images and contexts not unlike the richness and floridness of the Brazilian jungle".[25] Third-phase Cinema Novo has also been called "the cannibal-tropicalist phase"[26] or simply the "tropicalist" phase.[25]

Tropicalism was a movement that focused on kitsch, bad taste and gaudy colors. Film historians refer to cannibalism both literally and metaphorically. Both types of cannibalism are visible in Como Era Gostoso o Meu Frances ("How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman," 1971), in which the protagonist is abducted and eaten by literal cannibals at the same time it is "suggested that the Indians (i.e., Brazil) should metaphorically cannibalize their foreign enemies, appropriating their force without being dominated by them."[14] Rocha believed cannibalism represented the violence that was necessary to enact social change and depict it onscreen: "From Cinema Novo it should be learned that an aesthetic of violence, before being primitive, is revolutionary. It is the initial moment when the colonizer becomes aware of the colonized. Only when confronted with violence does the colonizer understand, through horror, the strength of the culture he exploits."[
With Brazil modernizing in the global economy, third-phase Cinema Novo also became more polished and professional, producing "films in which the rich cultural texture of Brazil has been pushed to the limit and exploited for its own aesthetic ends rather than for its appropriateness as political metaphor."[25] Brazilian consumers and filmmakers began to feel that Cinema Novo was contradicting the ideals of its first phase. This perception led to the birth of Novo Cinema Novo, also called Udigrudi[nb 1] cinema, which used 'dirty screen' and 'garbage' aesthetics to return Cinema Novo to its original focus on marginalized characters and social problems.
But third-phase Cinema Novo also had supporters. Cinema Novo filmmaker Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, who was active during the first phase and produced one of the premiere films of the third phase, Macunaíma, was pleased Cinema Novo had made itself more relatable to Brazilian citizens, despite accusations it was selling out to do so. Referencing Leon Hirszman's Garota de Ipanema, de Andrade praised Hirszman for using "a popular stereotype to establish contact with the masses, while at the same time ... demystif[ying] that very stereotype".[27]

End of Cinema Novo[edit]
Burnes St. Patrick Hollyman, son of famed American photographer Thomas Hollyman, states that "by 1970, many of the cinema novo films had won numerous awards at international festivals".[28] In 1970 Rocha published a manifesto on the progress of Cinema Novo, in which he said he was pleased that Cinema Novo "had gained critical acceptance as part of world cinema" and had become "a nationalist cinema that accurately reflected the artistic and ideological concerns of the Brazilian people" (Hollyman).[28] But Rocha also warned filmmakers and consumers that being too complacent in the achievements of Cinema Novo would return Brazil to its pre-Cinema Novo state:
The movement is bigger than any one of us.But the young should know that they cannot be irresponsible about the present and the future because today's anarchy can be tomorrow's slavery. Before long, imperialism will start to exploit the newly created films. If the Brazilian cinema is the palm tree of Tropicalism, it is important that the people who have lived through the drought are on guard to make sure that Brazilian cinema doesn't become underdeveloped.[29]
Rocha's fears were realized. In 1977, filmmaker Carlos Diegues said that "one can only talk about Cinema Novo in nostalgic or figurative terms because Cinema Novo as a group no longer exists, above all because it has been diluted into Brazilian cinema."[30] Toward the end of Cinema Novo, the Brazilian government created film company Embrafilme to encourage production of Brazilian cinema; but Embrafilme mostly produced films that ignored the Cinema Novo ideology. Aristides Gazetas claims that Third Cinema now carries on the Cinema Novo tradition.[31]

In 1969, the Brazilian government instituted Embrafilme, a company designed to produce and distribute Brazilian cinema. Embrafilme produced movies of various genres, including fantasies and big-budget epics. At the time, Cinema Novo filmmaker Carlos Diegues said he supported Embrafilme because it was "the only enterprise with sufficient economic and political power to confront the devastating voracity of the multinational corporations in Brazil."[30] Moreover, Diegues held that while Cinema Novo "is not identified with Embrafilme", "[Embrafilme's] existence ... is in reality a project of Cinema Novo."[30]

When Embrafilme was dismantled in 1990 by President Fernando Collor de Mello, "the consequences" for the Brazilian film industry "were immediate and grim."[32] Lacking investors, many Brazilian directors co-produced English films. This caused English cinema to overrun the Brazilian market, which went from producing 74 films in 1989 to producing nine films in 1993. Brazilian President Itamar Franco ended the crisis by implementing the Brazilian Cinema Rescue Award, which funded 90 projects between 1993 and 1994. The award "opened new doors to a young generation of new film-makers (and a few of the veterans) who were confident that, as the title of a film by Cinema Novo veteran director Carlos Diegues prophetically announced, better days would come (Melhores Dias Virao/Better Days Will Come, 1989)."[33]

Third Cinema[edit]
According to Aristides Gazetas, Cinema Novo is the first example of an influential genre called Third Cinema. Like Cinema Novo, Third Cinema draws on Italian neorealism and French New Wave. Gazetas claims that Cinema Novo can be characterized as early Third Cinema because Glauber Rocha "adopted Third Cinema techniques to bring awareness of the social and political realities in his country through cinema".[3] After fading with Cinema Novo, Third Cinema was revived in 1986 when English film companies looked to create a genre that "focused upon non Anglo-American cinematic practices" and "avoided both the sentimental leftist cultural theory emanating from the UK and the cultural and educational practices in line with corporate cultures and market consumerism that related to variants of postmodernism."[31]

In 1965, Glauber Rocha claimed that "Cinema Novo is a phenomenon of new peoples everywhere and not a privilege of Brazil."[12] Appropriately, Third Cinema has affected film culture throughout the world. In Italy, Gillo Pontecorvo directed Battaglia di Algeri ("The Battle of Algiers," 1966), which depicted native African muslims as brave terrorists fighting French colonialists in Algeria. Cuban filmmaker Tomas Gutierrez Alea, co-founder of the ground-breaking Instituto Cubano del Arte y Industria Cinematograficos, used Third Cinema to "reconstitut[e] an historical past for Cubans."[34] According to Stuart Hall, Third Cinema also impacted black peoples in the Caribbean by giving them two identities: one in which they are unified across a diaspora, and another that highlights "what black people have become as a result of white rule and colonization."[35]
...Black God, White Devil (Portuguese: Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol; literally, "God and the Devil in the Land of Sun") is a 1964 Brazilian film directed and written by Glauber Rocha. The film stars Othon Bastos, Maurício do Valle, Yoná Magalhães, and Geraldo Del Rey. It belongs to the Cinema Novo movement, addressing the socio-political problems of the 1960s Brazil. The film was released on DVD in North America for the first time by Koch-Lorber Fill
The film starts in the 1940s, during another drought in the sertão, when ranch hand Manuel (Geraldo Del Rey) is fed up with his situation. His boss tries to cheat him of his earnings and Manuel kills him, fleeing with his wife, Rosa (Yoná Magalhães). Now an outlaw, Manuel joins up with a self-proclaimed saint who condones violence (at one point slaughtering a baby) and preaches disturbing doctrines. It is now Rosa who turns to killing and the two are on the move once again. And so it goes, the two running from one allegiance to another, following the words of others as they attempt to find a place in their ruthless land. Blending mysticism, religion, and popular culture in this symbolic and realistic drama, Rocha insists that rather than follow the external and obscure dogmas of culture and religion, man must determine his path by his own voice
Glauber Rocha was 25 years old when he wrote and began to direct the film.

Its filming took place on Monte Santo and Canudos, Bahia lasting from June 18, 1963 to September 2, 1963.[2][1]

In the scene where we see Manuel (Geraldo Del Rey) carrying a huge stone over his head while climbing Monte Santo on his knees, Del Rey insisted on carrying a real stone that weighted over 20 kilos - something that worried Rocha. After the shooting, Del Rey had to take 2 days off, due to fatigue.

During the dubbing of the sound, Othon Bastos performed three voices. Besides dubbing himself as Corisco, he performed the voice for Lampião (whom Corisco had "incorporated") and also dubbed Sebastião, the black God, even though Lídio Silva played the character on screen.
guillermo del Toro Gómez (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡiˈʝeɾmo ðel ˈtoɾo]; born October 9, 1964) is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and novelist. In his filmmaking career, del Toro has alternated between Spanish-language dark fantasy pieces, such as The Devil's Backbone (2001) and Pan's Labyrinth (2006), and more mainstream American action movies, such as Blade II (2002), Hellboy (2004), its sequel Hellboy II: The Golden Army (2008), and Pacific Rim (2013). , The Devil's Backbone and Pan's Labyrinth, are among his most critically acclaimed works. They share similar settings, protagonists and themes with the 1973 Spanish film The Spirit of the Beehive, widely considered to be the finest Spanish film
In addition to his directing works, del Toro is a prolific producer, his producing works including acclaimed and/or successful films such as The Orphanage (2007), Julia's Eyes (2010), Biutiful (2010), Kung Fu Panda 2 (2011), Puss in Boots (2011), and Mama (2013). He was originally chosen by Peter Jackson to direct The Hobbit films; he left the project due to production problems but was still credited as co-writer for his numerous contributions to the script.
Del Toro's work is characterised by a strong connection to fairy tales and horror, with an effort to infuse visual or poetic beauty.[2] He has a lifelong fascination with monsters, which he considers symbols of great power.[3] Del Toro is known for his use of insectile and religious imagery, the themes of Catholicism and celebrating imperfection, underworld and clockwork motifs, dominant amber lighting, and his frequent collaborations with actors Ron Perlman and Doug Jones.[4][5]
Del Toro promoting his first feature film, Cronos, which was released in 1993.
Del Toro was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. He was raised in a strict Catholic household.[6] Del Toro studied at the Centro de Investigación y Estudios Cinematográficos, in Guadalajara.[7]
When del Toro was about eight years old, he began experimenting with his father's Super 8 camera, making short films with Planet of the Apes toys and other objects. One short focused on a "serial killer potato" with ambitions of world domination; it murdered del Toro's mother and brothers before stepping outside and being crushed by a car.[8] Del Toro made approximately ten short films before his first feature, including one titled Matilde, but only the last two, Doña Lupe and Geometria, have been made available.[9] He also wrote four and directed five episodes of the cult series La Hora Marcada, along with other Mexican filmmakers such as Emmanuel Lubezki and Alfonso Cuarón.
Del Toro studied special effects and make-up with special effects artist Dick Smith.[10] He spent ten years as a special effects make-up designer and formed his own company, Necropia. He also co-founded the Guadalajara International Film Festival. Later on in his directing career, he formed his own production company, the Tequila Gang.
In 1997, at the age of 33, Guillermo was given a $30 million budget from Miramax Films to shoot his second film, Mimic. During this time, his father, automotive entrepreneur Federico del Toro, was kidnapped in Guadalajara. Although Federico was eventually released safely, there was intense economic pressure from his captors, to the point that del Toro's family had to pay twice the amount originally asked. The event prompted del Toro, his parents and his siblings to move abroad. In an interview with Time magazine, he said this about the kidnapping of his father: "Every day, every week, something happens that reminds me that I am in involuntary exile [from my country]."[11][12]
People say, you know, "I like your Spanish movies more than I like your English-language movies because they are not as personal", and I go "****, you're wrong!" Hellboy is as personal to me as Pan's Labyrinth. They're tonally different, and yes, of course you can like one more than the other - the other one may seem banal or whatever it is that you don't like. But it really is part of the same movie. You make one movie.

Hitchcock did one movie, all his life.

—Guillermo del Toro, Twitch Film, January 15, 2013[2]
Del Toro has directed a wide variety of films, from comic book adaptations (Blade II, Hellboy) to historical fantasy and horror films, two of which are set in Spain in the context of the Spanish Civil War under the authoritarian rule of Francisco Franco. These two films, The Devil's Backbone and Pan's Labyrinth, are among his most critically acclaimed works. They share similar settings, protagonists and themes with the 1973 Spanish film The Spirit of the Beehive, widely considered to be the finest Spanish film of the 1970s.[13]
Del Toro views the horror genre as inherently political, explaining, "Much like fairy tales, there are two facets of horror. One is pro-institution, which is the most reprehensible type of fairy tale: Don't wander into the woods, and always obey your parents. The other type of fairy tale is completely anarchic and antiestablishment."[12]

He is close friends with two other prominent and critically praised Mexican filmmakers Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro González Iñárritu.[14] The three often influence each other's directorial decisions, and have been interviewed together by Charlie Rose. Cuarón was one of the producers of Pan's Labyrinth, while Iñárritu assisted in editing the film.
Del Toro has also contributed to the web series T
On June 2, 2009, del Toro's first novel, The Strain, was released. It is the first part of an apocalyptic vampire trilogy co-authored by del Toro and Chuck Hogan. The second volume, The Fall, was released on September 21, 2010. The final installment, The Night Eternal, followed in October 2011. Del Toro cites writings of Antoine Augustin Calmet, Montague Summers and Bernhardt J. Hurwood among his favourites in the non-literary form about vampires.[On September 11, 2009 del Toro signed a deal with The Walt Disney Company to create a new label known as Disney Double Dare You. The label planned to create family-friendly, all-ages animated projects that still manage to thrill and frighten.[18] In 2010 Del Toro said the that label was dead.[19]

On December 9, 2010, del Toro launched Mirada Studios with his long-time cinematographer Guillermo Navarro, director Mathew Cullen and executive producer Javier Jimenez. Mirada was formed in Los Angeles, California to be a collaborative space where they and other filmmakers can work with Mirada's artists to create and produce projects that span digital production and content for film, television, advertising, interactive and other media. Mirada launched as a sister company to production company Motion Theory.[20]

Del Toro directed Pacific Rim, a science fiction film based on a screenplay by del Toro and Travis Beacham. In the film, giant monsters rise from the Pacific Ocean and attack major cities, leading humans to retaliate with gigantic mecha suits called Jaegers. Del Toro commented, "This is my most un-modest film, this has everything. The scale is enormous and I'm just a big kid having fun."[21] The film was released on July 12, 2013 and grossed $411 million at the box office.

Del Toro directed "Night Zero", the pilot episode of The Strain, a vampire horror television series based on the novel trilogy of the same name by del Toro and Chuck Hogan. FX has commissioned the pilot episode, which del Toro scripted with Hogan and was filmed in Toronto in September 2013.[22][23] FX ordered a thirteen-episode first season for the series on November 19, 2013, and announced that the series will premiere some time in July 2014.[24]

After The Strain's pilot episode, del Toro began directing Crimson Peak, a gothic horror film he co-wrote with Matthew Robbins and Lucinda Cox. Del Toro described the film as "a very set-oriented, classical but at the same time modern take on the ghost story", citing The Omen, The Exorcist and The Shining as influences. Del Toro stated, "I think people are getting used to horror subjects done as found footage or B-value budgets. I wanted this to feel like a throwback." Jessica Chastain, Tom Hiddleston, Mia Wasikowska and Charlie Hunnam are set to star.[25][26] Production began February 2014 in Toronto, with an April 2015 release date planned.[27]

Future projects[edit]
Del Toro is scheduled to direct three films for Universal: Frankenstein; a new adaptation of Slaughterhouse-Five; and Drood, a film based on a Dan Simmons novel published in February 2009.[28] Drood was expected to be his first project after the two films set in Middle-earth. These projects would have filled up his schedule until 2017.[29] Part of the Universal deal entails continuing research and development for the creatures in At the Mountains of Madness.[30] In June 2009, Del Toro said he would only direct Frankenstein.[31] Del Toro is also in the early stages of development of Saturn and the End of Days.[32]

Del Toro said his Frankenstein would be a faithful "Miltonian tragedy", citing Frank Darabont's "near perfect" script, which evolved into Kenneth Branagh's Frankenstein.[33] Del Toro said of his vision, "What I'm trying to do is take the myth and do something with it, but combining elements of Frankenstein and Bride of Frankenstein without making it just a classical myth of the monster. The best moments in my mind of Frankenstein, of the novel, are yet to be filmed [...] The only guy that has ever nailed for me the emptiness, not the tragic, not the Miltonian dimension of the monster, but the emptiness is Christopher Lee in the Hammer films, where he really looks like something obscenely alive. Boris Karloff has the tragedy element nailed down but there are so many versions, including that great screenplay by Frank Darabont that was ultimately not really filmed."[34] He has also cited Bernie Wrightson's illustrations as inspiration, and said the film will not focus on the monster's creation, but be an adventure film featuring the character.[35] Del Toro said he would like Wrightson to design his version of the creature. The film will also focus on the religious aspects of Shelley's tale.[36] In June 2009, del Toro stated that production on Frankenstein was not likely to begin for at least four years.[37] Despite this, he has already cast frequent collaborator Doug Jones in the role of Frankenstein's monster. In an interview with Sci Fi Wire, Jones stated that he learned of the news the same day as everybody else; that "Guillermo did say to the press that he's already cast me as his monster, but we've yet to talk about it. But in his mind, if that's what he's decided, then it's done ... It would be a dream come true."[38] The film will be a period piece.[39]

In June 2010 news came that del Toro would be writing and producing a brand new take on the story of Van Helsing. There is no word yet on if he will direct or not.[40]

At Comic-Con 2010, del Toro made the surprise announcement that he would co-write, produce, and likely direct a 3D Haunted Mansion film for Disney. Del Toro says the film will stray away from the comedic nature of the 2003 film and will revolve around the ride's Hatbox Ghost.[41]

On July 28, 2010 it was announced that he would direct At the Mountains of Madness by H. P. Lovecraft for Universal Pictures, with James Cameron as producer. The movie was originally set up as a project at DreamWorks in 2004.[42] Just a month earlier, del Toro said that the Lovecraft adaptation probably wouldn't happen at all; "It doesn't look like I can do it. It's very difficult for the studios to take the step of doing a period-set, R-rated, tentpole movie with a tough ending and no love story. Lovecraft has a readership as big as any best-seller, but it's tough to quantify because his works are in the public domain." Not long after, he was approached by Cameron who asked him if he still wanted to do the movie. When del Toro confirmed he did, Cameron said "Let's do it." Both of them put forward the idea for Universal, which then greenlit it.[43] Earlier the same year, del Toro also asked S. T. Joshi if he wanted to be a consultant if and when the movie got into motion.[44]

At the Legendary Comics panel at the 2012 New York Comic Con. Left to right: emcee Chris Hardwick, Bob Schreck, Matt Wagner, Grant Morrison, Del Toro and Travis Beacham.
Del Toro is also attached to produce the film adaptation of David Moody's novel Hater.[45]

Del Toro has expressed interest in video games, and hopes to create a "Citizen Kane of games."[46] In an MTV News interview in late July 2010, he clarified his ambitions, stating that: "One of the things we're announcing in the next few weeks is a big deal with a big company. We're going to do games that are going to be technically and narratively very interesting. It's not a development deal. We're going to do it. We're doing them. And we're going to announce it soon enough."[47] At the 2010 Spike Video Game Awards, del Toro announced that he was working on a video game titled Insane, which was planned for release in 2013.[48] On August 6, 2012, it was announced that the project was cancelled,[49] although in November 2012 del Toro said that the game was still in development, with a developer and publisher that are currently unknown.[50]

On September 21, 2010, del Toro announced that he wanted to direct new adaptations of the Stephen King novels It and Pet Sematary, but stated that he is very busy and unlikely to be able to make the films any time soon.[51]

On August 18, 2011 it was announced del Toro is going to be developing a new film version of Beauty and the Beast, with Emma Watson in mind to star. Crazy, Stupid, Love producer Denise Di Novi confirmed the filmmaker's involvement, and said that she would be co-producing the movie with him.[52]

With Daniel Kraus, del Toro has written the upcoming book Trollhunters.[53][54]

On January 15, 2013 del Toro confirmed that a film based around supernatural characters from DC Comics was being written.[55] While Warner Brothers is still considering green lighting the film, del Toro stated that the working title is Dark Universe and will include characters such as John Constantine, Swamp Thing, The Spectre, and others.

On April 24, 2013, it was announced that del Toro is currently collaborating with HBO to create a live-action pilot based on the Naoki Urasawa manga series Monster.[56] Toro will also produce the thriller Midnight Delivery for Universal; Brian Kirk will direct the film.[57] In July 2013 Kevin Costner was in talks to star in the film.[58]

Guillermo is also working on an adaption of Domu by Katsuhiro Otomo.

Shortly after Cronos, Del Toro wrote an adaption of the novel Spanky by Christopher Fowler, which is called Mephisto's Bridge.

In 2014, del Toro announced an Pacific Rim sequel and an animated series for 2017.[59]
In a 2007 interview, del Toro described his political position as "a little too liberal." He pointed out that the villains in most of his films, such as the industrialist in Cronos, the Nazis in Hellboy, and the Francoists in Pan's Labyrinth, are united by the common attribute of authoritarianism. "I hate structure. I'm completely anti-structural in terms of believing in institutions. I hate them. I hate any institutionalised social, religious, or economic holding."[60]

In 2009, in an interview with Charlie Rose, del Toro described his Roman Catholic upbringing as excessively "morbid," saying, "I mercifully lapsed as a Catholic, I say, but as Buñuel used to say, 'I'm an atheist, thank God.'" Though insisting that he is spiritually "not with Buñuel" and that "once a Catholic, always a Catholic, in a way," he followed by saying, "I believe in man. I believe in mankind, as the worst and the best that has happened to this world."[61] He has also responded to the observation that he views his art as his religion by saying, "It is. To me, art and storytelling serve primal, spiritual functions in my daily life. Whether I'm telling a bedtime story to my kids or trying to mount a movie or write a short story or a novel, I take it very seriously."[12]

In 2010, del Toro revealed that he was a fan of video games, describing them as "the comic books of our time" and "a medium that gains no respect among the intelligentsia." He has stated that the only games he considers masterpieces are Ico and Shadow of the Colossus.[62]

Del Toro's favorite film monsters are Frankenstein's monster, the Alien, Gill-man, Godzilla, and the Thing.[63] Frankenstein in particular has a special meaning for him, in both film and literature, as he claims he has a "Frankenstein fetish to a degree that is unhealthy," and that it's "the most important book of my life, so you know if I get to it, whenever I get to it, it will be the right way."[64]

In an interview with Robert K. Elder for his book The Best Film You've Never Seen, del Toro explains his careful methodology: "I'm as thorough and as well-prepared as I can be in my filmmaking, and that came from the discipline of having to work as a make-up effects artist many, many, many times in my life."[65]

Recurring collaborators[edit]
Matthew Robbins (Mimic, Don't Be Afraid of the Dark, Crimson Peak)
Guillermo Navarro (Cronos, The Devil's Backbone, Hellboy, Pan's Labyrinth, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, Pacific Rim)
Dan Laustsen (Mimic, Crimson Peak)
Gabriel Beristain (Blade II, The Strain)
Javier Navarrete (The Devil's Backbone, Pan's Labyrinth)
Marco Beltrami (Mimic, Blade II, Hellboy, Don't Be Afraid of the Dark)
Fernando Velázquez (The Orphanage, Julia's Eyes, Mama, Crimson Peak)
Ramin Djawadi (Pacific Rim, The Strain)

Since del Toro's first feature film Cronos, he has collaborated with Ron Perlman on a total of six films.
Federico Luppi (Cronos, The Devil's Backbone, Pan's Labyrinth)
Ron Perlman (Cronos, Blade II, Hellboy, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, Pacific Rim, Book of Life)
Norman Reedus (Mimic, Blade II)
Doug Jones (Mimic, Hellboy, Pan's Labyrinth, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, The Strain, Crimson Peak)
Fernando Tielve (The Devil's Backbone, Pan's Labyrinth)
Íñigo Garcés (The Devil's Backbone, Pan's Labyrinth)
Luke Goss (Blade II, Hellboy II: The Golden Army)
Karel Roden (Blade II, Hellboy)
Santiago Segura (Blade II, Hellboy, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, Pacific Rim)
Ladislav Beran (Blade II, Hellboy)
John Hurt (Hellboy, Hellboy II: The Golden Army, The Strain)
Belén Rueda (The Orphanage, Julia's Eyes)
Diego Luna (Rudo y Cursi, Book of Life)
Jessica Chastain (Mama, Crimson Peak)
Javier Botet (Mama, The Strain, Crimson Peak)
Charlie Hunnam (Pacific Rim, Crimson Peak)
Burn Gorman (Pacific Rim, Crimson Peak)
Robert Maillet (Pacific Rim, The Strain)
Leslie Hope (The Strain, Crimson Peak)
Year Title Director Writer Producer Executive producer Notes
1985 Doña Lupe (short) Yes Yes Yes
1985 Doña Herlinda y su Hijo (Doña Herlinda and Her Son) Yes
1987 Geometría (short) Yes Yes Yes
1993 Cronos Yes Yes Role: Man Walking Dog
1997 Mimic Yes Yes
1998 Un Embrujo (Under a Spell) Yes
2000 Bullfighter Role: Bullboy #2
2001 El Espinazo del Diablo (The Devil's Backbone) Yes Yes Yes
2002 Asesino en Serio (I Murder Seriously) Yes
2002 Blade II Yes
2004 Crónicas Yes
2004 Hellboy Yes Yes Role: Guy Dressed as Dragon
2006 Hellboy: Sword of Storms Creative producer
2006 El Laberinto del Fauno (Pan's Labyrinth) Yes Yes Yes
2007 Hellboy: Blood and Iron Creative producer
2007 El Orfanato (The Orphanage) Yes
2007 Hellboy: Iron Shoes (short) Creative producer
2007 Diary of the Dead Voice role: Newsreader (uncredited)
2008 Cosas Insignificantes (Insignificant Things) Yes
2008 Hellboy II: The Golden Army Yes Yes Voice role: Creature vocals (uncredited)
2008 Quantum of Solace Voice role: additional voices
2008 While She Was Out Yes
2008 Rudo y Cursi Yes
2009 Rabia (Rage) Yes
2009 Splice Yes
2010 Biutiful Associate producer
2010 Los Ojos de Julia (Julia's Eyes) Yes
2010 Megamind Creative consultant
2011 Kung Fu Panda 2 Yes Creative consultant
2011 Cowboys & Aliens Creative consultant (uncredited)[66]
2011 Don't Be Afraid of the Dark Yes Yes Voice role: Creature Voices
2011 Puss in Boots Yes Voice roles: Moustache Man / Comandante
2012 The Captured Bird (short) Yes
2012 Rise of the Guardians Yes
2012 The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Yes
2012 El Santos vs. La Tetona Mendoza (The Santos vs. The Busty Mendoza)[67] Voice role: Gamborimbo Punx
2013 Mama Yes
2013 Pacific Rim Yes Yes Yes
2013 The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug Yes
2014 The Book of Life Yes Post-production
2014 The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies Yes Post-production
2015 Crimson Peak Yes Yes Yes Post-production
2015 Kung Fu Panda 3 Yes In production
2017 Pacific Rim 2 Yes Yes Yes Development
Year Series title Director Producer Writer Notes
1986-1989 La Hora Marcada Yes Yes Wrote and directed episodes: "Hamburguesas", "Caminos de Ayer", "Con Todo para Llevar", "Invasión"
Directed episode: "Les Gourmets"
2012 It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia Role: Pappy McPoyle
Episode: "The Maureen Ponderosa Wedding Massacre"
2013 The Simpsons Yes Directed opening sequence
Episode: "Treehouse of Horror XXIV"
2014 The Strain Yes Yes Co-creator and executive producer
Wrote and directed episode: "Night Zero"
Video games[edit]
Year Title Director Producer Writer Other Notes
Unreleased Sundown Yes Co-Developer (Cancelled)
2008 Hellboy: The Science of Evil Yes Yes Voice Over Director
TBA Insane Yes Yes Yes
Year Title
2009 The Strain
2010 The Fall
2011 The Night Eternal
Awards and nominations[edit]
Year Award Category Title Result
1993 Cannes Film Festival Mercedes-Benz Award Cronos Won
1993 Ariel Award Golden Ariel Cronos Won
1993 Ariel Award Best Direction Cronos Won
1993 Ariel Award Best Screenplay Cronos Won
1993 Ariel Award Best Original Story Cronos Won
1993 Ariel Award Best First Work Cronos Won
1993 Moscow International Film Festival Golden St. George Cronos Nominated
1993 Havana Film Festival Best First Work Cronos Won
1993 Sitges Film Festival Best Film Cronos Nominated
1993 Sitges Film Festival Best Screenplay Cronos Won
1994 Brussels International Fantastic Film Festival Silver Raven Cronos Won
1995 Association of Latin Entertainment Critics Award Best First Work Cronos Won
1997 Sitges Film Festival Best Film Mimic Nominated
1998 ALMA Award Outstanding Latino Director of a Feature Film Mimic Nominated
1998 Saturn Award Best Writing Mimic Nominated
2002 Sitges Film Festival Time-Machine Honorary Award Won
2004 Imagen Award Creative Achievement Award Won
2004 Imagen Award Best Director - Film Hellboy Won
2005 Bram Stoker Award Best Screenplay Hellboy Nominated
2005 Chainsaw Award Best Screenplay Hellboy Nominated
2006 Cannes Film Festival Golden Palm Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2006 Gotham Award World Cinema Tribute Award Won
2006 Austin Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2006 Dublin Film Critics Circle Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Academy Award Best Original Screenplay Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 BAFTA Award BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Independent Spirit Award Best Film Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Empire Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Ariel Award Best Direction Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Austin Film Critics Association Awards Best Film Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Austin Film Critics Association Awards Best Original Screenplay Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Fantasporto Best International Fantasy Film Award Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Film Critics Circle of Australia Award Best Foreign Language Film Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 London Critics Circle Film Award Director of the Year Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 London Critics Circle Film Award London Film Critics Circle Award for Screenwriter of the Year Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 National Society of Film Critics Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Online Film Critics Society Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Online Film Critics Society Award Best Original Screenplay Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Palm Springs International Film Festival Best Foreign Language Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Association of Latin Entertainment Critics Award Best Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Goya Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Goya Award Best Original Screenplay Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Imagen Award Best Director - Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2007 Saturn Award Best Director Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Saturn Award Best Writing Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2007 Hugo Award Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation Pan's Labyrinth Nominated
2008 Bodil Award Bodil Award for Best Non-American Film Pan's Labyrinth Won
2008 Nebula Award Best Script Pan's Labyrinth Won
2008 Empire Award Inspiration Award Nominated
2008 Saturn Award The George Pal Memorial Award Won
2009 Hugo Award Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation Hellboy II: The Golden Army Nominated
2009 Chainsaw Award Best Screenplay Hellboy II: The Golden Army Nominated
2013 Hugo Award Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Nominated
2013 Hollywood Film Festival Hollywood Movie Award Pacific Rim Nominated
2014 Hugo Award Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation Pacific Rim Nominated
2014 Ray Bradbury Award Outstanding Dramatic Presentation Pacific Rim Nominated
2014 Saturn Award Best Director Pacific Rim Nominated
2014 Saturn Award Best Writing The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug Nominated
2014 Annie Award Storyboarding in a Television Production The Simpsons Nominated
See also[edit]
Cha Cha Cha Films
Mirada Studios
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Jump up ^ "Guillermo del Toro enters Haunted Mansion", Reuters, 23 July 2010
Jump up ^ Cameron to Produce Del Toro's 'Madness' for Universal
Jump up ^ James Cameron Talks 9 Minutes of AVATAR Re-Release Footage, 3D Conversions, and AT THE MOUNTAINS OF MADNESS
Jump up ^ S. T. Joshi's Blog
Jump up ^ Fleming, Michael (May 20, 2008). "Universal, del Toro love 'Hater'". Variety. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
Jump up ^ "The Hobbit Director Del Toro On Games' 'Story Engine' Future". Retrieved 2010-03-14.
Jump up ^ Guillermo del Toro Has Multiple Games In The Works With A 'Big Company'
Jump up ^ "Volition, Del Toro Confirm Partnership On inSane For 2013". Gamasutra. December 11, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
Jump up ^ Goldfarb, Andrew (August 6, 2012). "THQ Drops Guillermo Del Toro's InSane". IGN. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
Jump up ^ Gaudiosi, John (November 20, 2012). "Guillermo del Toro on Gaming and the Halo Movie". IGN. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
Jump up ^ By (2010-09-22). "Guillermo del Toro Would Like to Adapt Stephen King's It and Pet Sematary". Horror Yearbook. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
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Jump up ^ "Guillermo del Toro to Produce 'Midnight Delivery'". 25 September 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
Jump up ^ "Kevin Costner In Talks To Star In Guillermo Del Toro-Produced 'Midnight Delivery' For Universal". 15 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
Jump up ^ Guillermo del Toro - Special Message about Pacific Rim [HD]
Jump up ^ "Guillermo del Toro: "I hate structure."". YouTube. August 6, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
Jump up ^ "A conversation with Guillermo del Toro". Charlie Rose. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
Jump up ^ Edge Staff (August 26, 2008). "Hellboy Director Talks Gaming". Edge Online. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
Jump up ^ Mr. Beaks (August 24, 2011). "Guillermo Del Toro And Mr. Beaks Discuss DON'T BE AFRAID OF THE DARK, PACIFIC RIM And The Far-From-Used-Up Future Of AT THE MOUNTAINS OF MADNESS!". Retrieved September 29, 2012.
Jump up ^ Guillermo Del Toro Speaks On The Set Of 'Mama' - The State of Horror, Overextending Himself, Battling the MPAA, Frankenstein And Much More
Jump up ^ Elder, Robert K. The Best Film You've Never Seen: 35 Directors Champion the Forgotten or Critically Savaged Movies They Love. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review, 2013. Print.
Jump up ^ Ditzian, Eric (July 29, 2012). "'Cowboys & Aliens': Jon Favreau Talks Creating Creatures". Retrieved July 16, 2012.
Jump up ^ TheDudeFromTheGrid (May 15, 2012). "New RED BAND Trailer for El Santos vs La Tetona Mendoza". Retrieved November 16, 2012.
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guillermo del Toro.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Guillermo del Toro - Guillermo del Toro's official message board
Guillermo del Toro at the Internet Movie Database
Guillermo del Toro at AllMovie
Del Toro Webcast on
Premiere Magazine: Inside Del Toro's Sketchbook
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Guillermo del Toro
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Goya Award for Best Original Screenplay
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Nebula Award for Best Script/Bradbury Award

Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 84318163 LCCN: nr93045476 ISNI: 0000 0001 2141 7452 GND: 132955466 SUDOC: 077915429 BNF: cb14091920x (data) NDL: 01105391
Categories: 1964 birthsLiving peopleArtists from Guadalajara, JaliscoCthulhu Mythos writersEnglish-language film directorsFilm festival foundersMexican agnosticsMexican emigrants to the United StatesMexican male film actorsMexican film directorsMexican film producersMexican novelistsMexican screenwritersNebula Award winnersPeople from Guadalajara, JaliscoShort film directorsSpanish-language film directorsMexican male television actorsMexican television directorsMexican television producersMexican
lejandro González Iñárritu (Spanish pronunciation: [aleˈxandɾo ɣonˈsales iˈɲaritu]; born August 15, 1963) is a Mexican film director.
González Iñárritu is the first Mexican director to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director and by the Directors Guild of America for Best Director. He is also the first Mexican born director to have won the Prix de la mise en scene or best director award at Cannes (2006), the second one being Carlos Reygadas in 2012. His four feature films Amores perros (2000), 21 Grams (2003), Babel (2006) and Biutiful (2010) have gained critical acclaim worldwide including two Academy Award nominations. He is also friends with fellow Mexican directors Guillermo del Toro and Alfonso Cuarón

Crossing the Atlantic Ocean on a cargo ship at the age of 17 and 19, Alejandro worked his away across Europe and Africa. Alejandro attributes his extensive travels as a young man as having the most influential and profound effect on him as a filmmaker, often setting his films in the places he visited during this period.
After his travels, Alejandro returned to Mexico City and majored in communications at Universidad Iberoamericana. In 1984, Alejandro started his career as a radio host at the Mexican radio station WFM[disambiguation needed]. In 1988 he became the director of this rock and eclectic music station. Over the next five years, Alejandro spent his time interviewing rock stars, transmitting live concerts, and making WFM the number one radio station in Mexico. From 1987 to 1989, he composed music for six Mexican feature films. Today, Alejandro believes that music has had a bigger influence on him as an artist than film itself.

In the nineties Alejandro created Z films with Raul Olvera in Mexico. Under Z Films, Alejandro started writing, producing and directing short films and advertisements. Making the final transition into T.V Film directing, Alejandro studied under well-known Polish theater director Ludwik Margules, as well as Judith Weston in Los Angeles.

Path to fame[edit]
In 1995, Alejandro wrote and directed his first T.V pilot called Detras del dinero, starring Miguel Boise. Z Films went on to be one of the biggest and strongest film production companies in Mexico, launching seven young directors in the feature film arena. In 1999 Alejandro directed his first feature film Amores perros, written by Guillermo Arriaga. Amores perros explored Mexican society in the capital told through the perspective of three intertwining stories. In 2000, Amores perros premiered at the Cannes Film Festival and won the Critics Weeks Grand Prize. It also introduced audiences for the first time to Gael García Bernal. Amores perros went on to be nominated for Best Foreign Film at the Academy Awards.

After the success of Amores Perros, Alejandro and Guillermo Arriaga revisited the intersecting story structure of Amores perros in Alejandro's second film, 21 Grams. The film starred Benicio del Toro, Naomi Watts and Sean Penn. The film was presented at the Venice Film Festival, winning the Volpi Cup for actor Sean Penn. At the 2004 Academy Awards, Del Toro and Watts received nominations for their performances.

In 2005 Alejandro embarked on his third film, Babel, set around 3 continents, 4 countries, and in 4 different languages. Babel consists of four stories set in Morocco, Mexico, the United States, and Japan. The film stars Brad Pitt, Cate Blanchett and Adriana Barraza but introduced a full cast of non-actors and some new actors such as Rinko Kikuchi. It was presented at Cannes 2006, where Alejandro earned the Best Director Prize (Prix de la mise en scène). Babel was released in November 2006 and received seven nominations at the 79th Annual Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. Alejandro is the first Mexican Director nominated for DGA award and for an Academy Award. Babel went on to win Best Motion Picture in the drama category at the Golden Globe Awards on January 15, 2007. Gustavo Santaolalla won the Academy Award that year for Best Original Score. After Babel, Alejandro and his writing partner Guillermo Arriaga professionally parted ways, following Iñárritu barring Arriaga from the set during filming (Arriaga told the LA Times in 2009 "It had to come to an end, but I still respect [Iñárritu].")[1]

In 2008/2009 Alejandro directed and produced Biutiful, starring Javier Bardem, written by Alejandro, Armando Bo, and Nicolas Giacobone. The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festial on May 17, 2010. Bardem went on to win Best Actor (shared with Elio Germano for La nostra vita) at Cannes. Biutiful is Alejandro's first film in his native language since his debut feature Amores perros. For the second time in his career his film was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 83rd Academy Awards. It was also nominated for the 2011 Golden Globes in the category of Best Foreign Film, for the 2011 BAFTA awards in the category of Best Film Not in the English Language and Best Actor. Javier Bardem's performance was also nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor.

Alejandro is currently in postproduction for his newest feature film, Birdman, starring Michael Keaton, Naomi Watts, Edward Norton, Emma Stone, Zach Galifianakis, and Andrea Riseborough. Not only working with a new team, Alejandro is working within a new genre, as the film is his first comedy. Birdman is based on the Raymond Carver short story What We Talk About When We Talk About Love and is scheduled to be released October 17, 2013.[2][3]

In April 2014, it was announced that Iñárritu's next film as a director will be The Revenant, which he co-wrote with Mark L. Smith based on the novel of same name by Michael Punke. The film stars Leonardo DiCaprio, Tom Hardy and Will Poulter with shooting set to begin on September 22 [4][5][6][7][8] for a December 25, 2015 release.[9] The film will be a period piece set in the 19th century, and is described as a "gritty thriller" about a fur trapper who seeks revenge against a group of men who robbed and abandoned him after he was mauled by a grizzly bear[3]

Short films[edit]
From 2001 to 2011 Alejandro has directed several short films.

In 2001, Alejandro directed an 11 minute film segment for 11.09.01- which is composed of several short films that explore the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks from different points of view around the world.

In 2007, Alejandro made ANNA which screened at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival inside Chacun son cinéma. It was part of the 60th anniversary of the film festival and it was a series of shorts by 33 world-renown film directors.

In 2012, Alejandro made the experimental short film Naran Ja: One Act Orange Dance - inspired by L.A Dance Project's premiere performance. The short features excerpts of the new choreography Benjamin Millepied crafted for Moving Parts. The story takes place in a secluded, dusty space and centers around LADP dancer Julia Eichten.

In 2001/2002 Alejandro directed "Powder Keg", an episode for the BMW film series The Hire, starring Clive Owen as the driver.
In 2010, González Iñárritu directed Write the Future, a football-themed commercial for Nike ahead of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, which went on to win Grand Prix at the Cannes Lions advertising festival.
In 2012, Alejandro directed Procter and Gamble's "Best Job" commercial spot for the 2012 Olympic Ceremonies. It went on to win the Best Primetime Commercial Emmy at Creative Arts Emmy Awards.
Feature films[edit]
Death Trilogy[edit]
a series of three films that share the theme of death.[10]

Amores perros (2000)
A highly acclaimed film from 2000 set in Mexico City. Three individuals are connected by the event of a violent car crash.

21 Grams (2003)
The 2003 film was nominated for two acting Academy Awards. In this particular tale, three individuals are connected by a violent accident involving an automobile as well.

Babel (2006)
Taking place in Mexico, Japan, Morocco and the United States, this interconnecting story tells of four families that face a tragedy that begins with the purchasing of a rifle and traverses across four countries in three different continents. Inarritu was awarded the best director honour at the Cannes Film Festival for this highly acclaimed film. The film won and was nominated for many awards from respectable Film institutions (including the Academy Awards).

Other feature length films[edit]
Biutiful (2010)
Javier Bardem as Uxbal attempts to atone for his life's mishaps as a blackmarketeer in the slums of Barcelona, and faces death. Uxbal is diagnosed with terminal prostate cancer and faced with the difficult task to find closure in his life. Balancing a dysfunctional home life rooted by his unfaithful, bi-polar ex-wife, Uxbal tries to raise his young son and daughter without his ex-wife's abuse. As a blackmarketeer, Uxbal scrambles to make amends for exploiting illegal immigrants that he traffics yet also befriends. He has the ability to usher spirits to their resting peace. Biutiful was given the Oscar and Golden Globe nomination for Best Foreign Language Film. The film, like the Death trilogy, also has a strong theme of mortality.

Birdman (2014)
He is currently directing the comedy Birdman, starring Michael Keaton.

The Revenant (2015)
Starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Tom Hardy
Short films[edit]
Detrás del dinero (1995) (TV)
El Timbre (1996)
Powder Keg (2001) ("The Hire" series for BMW)
11'09"01 September 11 (2002)
Chacun son cinema (2007) (segment "ANNA")
Awards and nominations[edit]
He has been nominated for many awards including: Academy Award, Palme d'Or, Golden Lion, European Film Award, DGA Award, PGA Award, César Award, Silver Ribbon, Prix de la mise en scène, BAFTA, Ariel Award, Golden Globe, David di Donatello and ALFS Award.

Academy Awards:

anguage (Amores perros, won)
2007: Best Film (Babel, nominated)
2007: David Lean Award for Direction (Babel, nominated)
2011: Best Film Not in the English Language (Biutiful, nominated)
Cannes Film Festival:

2000: Critics Week Grand Prize (Amores perros, won)
2000: Young Critics Award - Best Feature (Amores perros, won)
2006: Golden Palm (Babel, nominated)
2006: Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (Babel, won)
2006: Best Director (Babel, won)
2010: Golden Palm ('Biutiful, nominated)
Directors Guild of America Awards:

2007: Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures (Babel, nominated)
Golden Globe Awards:
Cinema of Mexico
It has been suggested that Comedy In The Golden Age Of Mexican Cinema be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2013.
Cinema of Mexico
Dolores del Río in 1934

Main distributors Paramount Int'L 20.3%
Warner Bros Int'L 16.2%
Fox Int'L 14.6%[2]
Produced feature films (2011)[3]
Fictional 51 (69.9%)
Animated 6 (8.2%)
Documentary 16 (21.9%)

The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events - most particularly the Mexican Revolution - and produced some movies that have only recently been rediscovered. During the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, Mexico all but dominated the Latin American film industry.
The Guadalajara International Film Festival is the most prestigious Latin American film festival and is held annually In Guadalajara, Mexico. Mexico has twice won the highest honor in the Palme d'Or, having won the Grand Prix for Maria Candelaria in 1946 and the Palme d'Or in 1961 for Viridiana, more than any other Latin American nation. Mexico City is the fourth largest film and television production center in North America, behind Los Angeles, New York City and Vancouver, as well as the largest in Latin America.

Silent films (1896-1929)[edit]
The first "moving picture", according to sources by film historian Jim Mora, was viewed in 1895 using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope. A year later, the cinematographe projector was introduced by Auguste Lumière. Mexico's first queues appeared in cinemas in the capital to see international one-minute films such as The Card Players, Arrival of a Train, and The Magic Hat.[5] The "silent film" industry in Mexico produced several movies; however, many of the films up to the 1920s have been lost and were not well documented
Salvador Toscano Mexico's first filmmaker.
The origins of early filmmaking is generally associated with Salvador Toscano Barragán. In 1898 Toscano made the country's first film with a plot, titled Don Juan Tenorio. During the Mexican Revolution, Toscano recorded several clips of the battles, which would become a full-length documentary in 1950, assembled by his daughter. Other short films were either created or influenced from French film-makers.

By 1906, 16 movie salons opened their doors to accommodate the popularity of cinema in Mexico City. Carpas, or tent shows, were popular beginning in 1911 where lower-class citizens would perform picaresque humor and theatrical plays, a place for training for aspiring actors. Politically affiliated films appearing in 1908, often deemed propagandistic by today's terms. Significant battles were filmed and broadcast during the Revolution which fueled Mexicans' excitement in cinema

Scene from El aniversario del fallecimiento de la suegra
The popularity that cinema had experienced in the early 20th century continued to grow and by 1911 fourteen movie houses were erected from the year prior. It was during this period that the documentary techniques were mastered as is evident in the Alva brother's production entitled Revolución orozquista (1912). The film was shot in the camps of the rebel and federal forces during the battle between General Huerta and the leader Pascual Orozco.
However, despite the relative advancement of cinema during this period, the moralistic and paternalist ideology of Madero led to his campaign to save the lower classes from immorality through censorship. Hence, in late September and early October 1911, city council members appointed additional movie house inspectors, whose wages would be paid by the exhibitioners. Furthermore, the head of the Entertainment Commission, proposed the implementation of censorship; however, Victoriano Huerta's coup d'état in February 1913, prevented the move to legislate censorship.
Although Huerta's reign was brief, the cinema experienced significant changes within this period such as the further establishment of censorship and a shift away from documentary films to entertainment films. The Alva brothers' production of Aniversario del fallecimineto de la suegra de Enhart is indicative of the change in the aim of Mexican cinematographers.

Lupe Vélez Mexican silent film actress
In regards to censorship, the Huerta government imposed a moral and political decree of censorship in approximately June 1913. This decree was imposed a few days after convencionista soldiers shot at the screen during a viewing of El aguila y la serpiente. The decree stated that films that showed the following were prohibited: "views representing crimes, if they do not include punishment of the guilty parties, views which directly or indirectly insult an authority or person, morality or good manners, provoke a crime or offence, or in any way disturb the public order (Mora 70)." As a result of the limitations placed on film content as well as the radicalization of the parties involved in the armed conflicts, cameramen and producers began to display their opinion through the films they produced. For instance, favoritism towards the Zapatistas was illustrated in the film Sangre Hermana (Sister Blood, 1914). Due to the sensational content of this film, it is evident that the producers had no interest in displaying the events in such a way that the audience could come to their own conclusions.
The cinematic productions of this period were reflective of the Italians style film d'art, which were fiction-based melodramas. The film La Luz (The Light, Ezequiel Carrasco, 1917) was the first film that attempted to adopt this style, even though it was viewed as a plagiarism of Piero Fosco's Il Fuoco. Paranaguá attributes the influence that the Italian had on the Mexican cinema with the similarities between the situations of both countries. Both countries were in a state of chaos and disorder- there was a war in Italy and a revolution in Mexico (Paranaguá 70). Once again censorship was re-established on October 1, 1919. Films, which illustrated acts of immortality or induced sympathy for the criminal, were prohibited.
In 1917, the former vaudeville star Mimí Derba, founded the Azteca Studios, that realized notable films among 1917 and 1923. The most successful of these films was En defensa Propia (1921).
Government budget had to be trimmed as a result of the rebellion and cinematographic departments of the Ministry of Education and Agriculture were cut. By 1924, narrative films were at an all time low since 1917.
During the 1920s very few movies were produced, given the political climate that was still very unsettled and the resurgence of the American film industry.
Notable Mexican movie stars moved to the United States. Stars like Ramón Novarro, Dolores del Ríoand Lupe Vélez, became principal stars of notable Hollywood films in the 1920s and 1930s. Other Mexican stars realized numerous movies in the Spanish versions of Hollywood movies.

The Golden Age[edit]
Main articles: Golden Age of Mexican cinema and Comedy In The Golden Age Of Mexican Cinema
Lupita Tovar, star of Santa (1931), the first Mexican talkie movie.
In the 1930s, once peace and a degree of political stability were achieved, the film industry took off in Mexico and several movies still experimenting with the new medium were done. Hollywood's attempt at creating Spanish language films for Latin America failed mainly due to the combination of Hispanic actors from different ethnicities exhibiting various accents unfamiliar to the Mexican people. It is important to notice how early Mexican cinematographers were influenced and encouraged by Soviet director Sergei Eisenstein's visit to the country in 1930.[7]
In 1931 realized the first Mexican talkie movie, an adaptation of the Federico Gamboa's novel Santa, directed by Antonio Moreno and starred by the Mexican-Hollywood star Lupita Tovar. Until Sergei Eisenstein's Que Viva Mexico (1931), Mexican audiences were exposed to popular melodramas, crude comedies, as well as Spanish-language versions of Hollywood movies. Eisenstein's visit to Mexico inspired directors like Emilio Fernandez and cameraman Gabriel Figueroa, and the number of Mexican-made films increased and improved. During the 1930s the Mexican film industry realized considerable success movies like La Mujer del Puerto (1934), Fred Zinnemann's Redes (1934), Janitzio (1934), Dos Monjes (1934), Allá en el Rancho Grande (1936), Vámonos con Pancho Villa (1936) from De Fuentes' Revolution Trilogy and La Zandunga.
During the 1940s the full potential of the industry developed. Actors and directors became popular icons and even figures with political influence on diverse spheres of Mexican life. The industry received a boost as a consequence of Hollywood redirecting its efforts towards propagandistic films and European countries focusing on World War II, which left an open field for other industries. Mexico dominated the film market in Latin America for most of the 1940s without competition from the United States film industry. During World War II movie production in Mexico tripled. The fact that Argentina and Spain had fascist governments made the Mexican movie industry the world's largest producer of Spanish-language films in the 1940. Although the Mexican government was reactionary, it encouraged the production of films that would help articulate a true Mexican identity, in contrast to the view often seen in Hollywood movies.

The Golden Age of Mexican cinema took place during the 1940s and beyond. The most prominent actor during this period was Mario Moreno Cantinflas. The film Ahí está el detalle in 1940 made Cantinflas a household name and became known as the "Mexican Charlie Chaplin" . His films were ubiquitous in Spain and Latin America and influenced many contemporary actors. Not until the appearance of "Tin-Tan" in the late 1940s did his popularity wane.[8]

Mexican actresses also were a focus in Mexican cinema. Sara García was the "grandmother of Mexico". Her career began with silent films in 1910, moved to theatre, and ultimately the film that made her famous, No basta ser madre (It's Not Enough to be a Mother) in 1937. Dolores del Río, another dramatic actress, became well known after her Hollywood career in the 1930s and for her roles in a couple films directed by Emilio Fernández.[9]
María Félix (well known as "La Doña", was a big star after her role in the movie Doña Barbara in 1943. She gained a higher popularity in European countries

Maria Candelaria, french film poster.
In 1943, the Mexican industry produced seventy films, the most for a Spanish speaking country. Two notable films released in 1943 by director Emilio Fernández were Flor silvestre (1942) and Maria Candelaria (1944), both films starring prestigious Hollywood actor Dolores del Río. The movies were triumphs for the director and for internationally acclaimed cinematographer, Gabriel Figueroa especially with Maria Candelaria winning the top prize at the Cannes Festival.[10] Other celebrated Fernández films were La perla (1945), Enamorada (1946), the Mexican-American production The Fugitive (1947, directed with John Ford), Río Escondido (1947), La Malquerida (1949) and Pueblerina (1949).

In 1948 there was another "first" for Mexican cinema: The trilogy of Nosotros los pobres, Ustedes los ricos and Pepe el Toro, starring Mexican icons Pedro Infante and Evita Muñoz "Chachita" and directed by Ismael Rodríguez.
The only other comedian with the same level of popularity as Cantinflas was German Valdez "Tin-Tan". Tin-Tan played a pachuco character appearing with a zoot suit in his films. Unlike Cantinflas, Tin-Tan never played as a pelado, but as a Mexican-American. He employed pachuco slang in many of his movies and made famous spanglish, a dialect that many Mexican residents disdained

María Félix
In the middle of the 1940s, the Spanish director Juan Orol started the production of films with Cuban and Mexican dancers. This cinematographic genre was named "Rumberas film", and was very popular with the Latin America audiences. The stars of this exotic genre were Maria Antonieta Pons, Meche Barba, Ninón Sevilla, Amalia Aguilar and Rosa Carmina.

Other relevant films during these years include Espaldas mojadas (Wetbacks) by Alejandro Galindo, Aventurera a melodrama starred by Ninón Sevilla, Dos tipos de cuidado (1951), El Rebozo de Soledad (1952) and Los olvidados (The Young and the Damned) (1950), a story about impoverished children in Mexico City directed by the Mexican of Spanish ascendent director Luis Buñuel, a very important figure in the course of the Mexican Cinema of the 1940s and 1950s. Some of the most important Buñuel's films in his Mexican period are Subida al cielo (1952), Él (1953), Ensayo de un crimen (1955) and Nazarín (1958).

The themes during those years, although mostly conventional comedies or dramas, touched all aspects of Mexican society, from the 19th century dictator Porfirio Díaz and his court, to love stories always tainted by drama.

1960s through 1980s[edit

Poster of El Ángel Exterminador (1962), by Luis Buñuel.
During the 1960s and 1970s many cult horror and action movies were produced with professional wrestler El Santo among others. Luis Buñuel released his last Mexican films: El ángel exterminador (1962) and Simón del desierto (1965).

In the late 1960s and early 1970s flourished the work of notable Mexican young directors: Arturo Ripstein (El castillo de la pureza-1972; El lugar sin límites-1977), Luis Alcoriza (Tarahumara-1965; Fé, Esperanza y Caridad-1973), Felipe Cazals (Las poquianchis-1976-; El Apando -1976-), Jorge Fons (los cachorros -1973-; Rojo Amanecer -1989-), Paul Leduc ( Reed, Mexico insurgente -1972-; Frida, Naturaleza Viva ), Alejandro Jodorowski ( El topo -1972- ; Santa Sangre -1989-), the Chilean Miguel Littin (Letters from Marusia -1976-), Jaime Humberto Hermosillo (La pasión según Berenice-1972-; Doña Herlinda y su hijo -1984-) and many others. His films represented to Mexico in notable international film festivals. American directors as John Huston realized some Mexican-English language films (Under the Volcano -1984-).

What is now Videocine was established in 1979 as Televicine by Emilio Azcarraga Milmo, whose family founded Televisa, with which Videocine is co-owned. The company became the largest producer and distributor of theatrical movies in Mexico and remains as such today. By the time of Videocine's establishment, it had become the norm for a Mexican movie to reach its largest post-theatrical audience through television carriage rights with any of the Televisa networks.

Nuevo Cine Mexicano[edit]
Main article: Nuevo Cine Mexicano
Arturo Ripstein
Guadalajara International Film Festival
Mexican cinema suffered through the 1960s and 1970s, until government sponsorship of the industry and the creation of state supported film helped create Nuevo cine Mexicano (New Mexican Cinema) in the 1990s. The period spanning the 1990s to the present has been considered as the Era of the Nuevo Cine Mexicano (New Mexican Cinema). It first took place with high quality films by Arturo Ripstein, Alfonso Arau, Alfonso Cuarón and María Novaro. Among the films produced at this time were Solo con tu pareja (1991), Como agua para chocolate (Like Water for Chocolate) (1992), Cronos (1992), El callejón de los milagros (1995), Profundo carmesí (1996), Sexo, pudor y lágrimas (Sex, Shame, and Tears) (1999), The Other Conquest (2000), and others like La Misma Luna (2006).
The latest are Amores perros by Alejandro González Iñárritu, (with a notable international success), Y tu mamá también by Alfonso Cuarón, El crimen del Padre Amaro by Carlos Carrera, Arráncame la vida by Roberto Sneider and Biutiful (2010) (also directed by Iñarritu), and Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada (2010).[11]

Notable Mexicans in the American film industry[edit]
Ramón Novarro[edit]
Ramón Novarro achieved fame as a "Latin lover" in silent films. His friends, the actor and director Rex Ingram and his wife, the actress Alice Terry, began to promote him as a rival to Rudolph Valentino. His role in Scaramouche (1923) brought him his first major success. Novarro appeared with Norma Shearer in The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg (1927) and with Joan Crawford in Across to Singapore (1928). He made his first talking film, starring as a singing French soldier, in Devil-May-Care (1929). He also starred with the French actress Renée Adorée in The Pagan (1929). Novarro starred with Greta Garbo in Mata Hari (1932) and was a qualified success opposite Myrna Loy in The Barbarian (1933).

Dolores del Río[edit]
Dolores del Río was a star of Hollywood films during the silent era and in the Golden Age of Hollywood. Later, she became an important actress in Mexican films. She was generally thought to be one of the most beautiful actresses of her era, and was the first Latin American movie star to have international appeal. In the silent film era, del Río was considered a counterpart to Rudolph Valentino. Her career flourished until the end of the silent era. She had successful films such as Ramona (1928) and Evangeline (1929). Later, in the 1930s, she starred successful films like Bird of Paradise (King Vidor, 1932), Flying Down to Rio (1933) and Journey into Fear (1942, directed by Orson Welles). In the 1940s and 1950s, Dolores was the principal female star in Mexican films. She returned to Hollywood with films like The Fugitive (1947) and Cheyenne Autumn (1964), both directed by John Ford and Flaming Star (1960) opposite Elvis Presley.

Lupe Vélez[edit]
Lupe Vélez was star in Hollywood during the late 1920s and 1930s. She took dancing lessons and in 1924, made her performing debut at the Teatro Principal. She moved to California that year and was first cast in movies by Hal Roach. After her debut in the movie El Gaucho (1927) with Douglas Fairbanks, she started an important career in Hollywood. She worked with stars like Gary Cooper, Edward G. Robinson and John Barrymore and with directors like D. W. Griffith, Cecil B. DeMille and Victor Fleming. Within a few years Vélez found her niche in comedies, playing beautiful but volatile foils to comedy stars. Her slapstick battle with Laurel and Hardy in Hollywood Party and her dynamic presence opposite Leon Errol in Mexican Spitfire are typically enthusiastic Vélez performances.

Gilbert Roland[edit]
Gilbert Roland's first major role was as one of Clara Bow's love interests in the collegiate comedy The Plastic Age (1925). In 1927, he played Armand in Camille opposite Norma Talmadge, with whom he was romantically linked. Roland's strong masculine voice assured that his own career continued. He starred in several Spanish language adaptations of American films and continued as a romantic lead. Beginning in the 1940s, critics began to take notice of his acting and he was praised for his supporting roles in John Huston's We Were Strangers (1949), The Bad and the Beautiful (1952) and Cheyenne Autumn (1964).

Pedro Armendáriz[edit]
Pedro Armendáriz played his first movie role at the age of 22 and after that he made many films in Mexico, the United States, France, Italy and England. Under the direction of Emilio Fernández, and with Dolores del Río, represented to the Mexican Cinema in all the world. In Hollywood he starred in films like The Fugitive (1947), Fort Apache (1948) and Three Godfathers (1949), directed by John Ford, We Were Strangers (1949, directed by John Huston) and The Conqueror (1953) with John Wayne among others. Armendáriz's last appearance was in the second James Bond film, From Russia with Love (1963) as Bond's ally, Kerim Bey.

Katy Jurado[edit]

Katy Jurado in 1953.
Katy Jurado began acting in Mexican films starting in 1943, with the movie No matarás. In 1948, her performance in Nosotros Los Pobres, opposite the well-known Mexican actor Pedro Infante, brought her fame. In 1952, she appeared in High Noon with Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly, earning a Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress. During the 1950s, she participated in several Hollywood productions such as Arrowhead (1953, with Charlton Heston), Broken Lance (1954, with Spencer Tracy for which she received an Academy Award nomination), Trapeze (1955, with Burt Lancaster), One-Eyed Jacks (1959, directed by Marlon Brando), Barabbas, Stay Away, Joe (1968, opposite Elvis Presley), Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973), and others. Her last Hollywood film was The Hi-Lo Country (1998), directed by Stephen Frears.

Anthony Quinn[edit]
Anthony Quinn starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including Zorba the Greek, Lawrence of Arabia, The Guns of Navarone, The Message and Federico Fellini's La strada. He won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor twice; for Viva Zapata! in 1952 and Lust for Life in 1956.

Ricardo Montalbán[edit]
Ricardo Montalbán had a career spanning seven decades (motion pictures from 1943 to 2006) and multiple notable roles. During the mid-to-late 1970s, he was the spokesperson in automobile advertisements for the Chrysler Cordoba (in which he famously extolled the "soft Corinthian leather" used for its interior). From 1977 to 1984 he starred as Mr. Roarke in the television series Fantasy Island. He also played Khan Noonien Singh in both the 1967 episode "Space Seed" of the first season of the original Star Trek series, and the 1982 film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. He won an Emmy Award in 1978, and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Screen Actors Guild in 1993. Into his 80s, he continued to perform, often providing voices for animated films and commercials.

Gabriel Figueroa[edit]
Cinematographer Gabriel Figueroa made his entry in the movie industry in 1932 as a photographer of stills for the film Revolución of Miguel Contreras Torres. He was later one of the 20 cinematographers hired for the Howard Hawks film Viva Villa!. After a few jobs he obtained a scholarship to study in the United States where he was taught by Gregg Toland his own style of lighting techniques. He filmed more than 200 movies, including Los Olvidados (directed by Luis Buñuel), John Ford's The Fugitive and The Night of the Iguana (directed by John Huston).

Emilio Fernandez[edit]
Emilio Fernández is best known for his work as director of the film Maria Candelaria which won the Grand Prix at the 1946 Cannes Film Festival.[12] In 1928, MGM's art director Cedric Gibbons, one of the original Academy Award members, supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on a scroll. In need of a model for his statuette Gibbons was introduced by his future wife Dolores del Río to Emilio. Reluctant at first, Fernández was finally convinced to pose nude to create what today is known as the "Oscar".[13] Other successful films directed by Fernández including Las Abandonadas, Bugambilia (1944); La Perla (1946), Enamorada (1946), Rio Escondido (1947), Maclovia (1948), Pueblerina (1949) and The Torch (filmed in the United States, with Paulette Goddard). In 1947 Fernández directed some scenes of the film The Fugitive, directed by John Ford. In the middle of the 1950s, the films of Fernández fall in decadence and he is relegated by other notable Mexican film directors. Fernández returned to his role as actor. In Hollywood participates in films like The Night of the Iguana (1964, directed by John Huston, with Richard Burton and Ava Gardner), Return of the Seven (1966, with Yul Brynner), Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1972, directed by Sam Peckinpah) and Under the Volcano (1984).

Salma Hayek[edit]

Salma Hayek in 2012.
Salma Hayek started her career in Mexican telenovelas. Her first film, El callejón de los milagros (Miracle Alley, 1994) put her in the spotlight and, next year she was starring in Desperado alongside Antonio Banderas. She has worked several times with Robert Rodriguez, including From Dusk Till Dawn (1996) and Once Upon a Time in Mexico (2003). She has worked in more than 30 films, including 54 (1998), El Coronel No Tiene Quien le Escriba (No One Writes to the Colonel, 1999), Wild Wild West (1999), Traffic (2000), Frida (2002), for which she earned an Academy Award nomination, Ask the Dust (2006) and Bandidas (2006). In 2003 she directed The Maldonado Miracle, a Showtime movie. In the 2006, she produced the successful television series Ugly Betty.

Gael García Bernal[edit]
Several Mexican movies starring Gael García Bernal have enjoyed great popularity, including Amores perros (2000), Y tu mamá también (2001), the polemical El crimen del Padre Amaro (The Crime of Father Amaro) (2002), and the Latin American film, The Motorcycle Diaries (2004). He has worked more in Europe than he has in Hollywood. He has starred in La Mala Educación (Bad Education) (2004), directed by Pedro Almodóvar, The King (2005), The Science of Sleep (2006) and Babel (2006). He is post-producing his first feature as a director, Déficit. Gael's next few projects include starring with Al Pacino in Hands of Stone, and alongside Daniel Day Lewis in Martin Scorsese's Silence.[14]

Diego Luna[edit]
From an early age, Luna began acting in television, film, and theatre. His first television role was in the 1991 movie El Último Fin de Año. His next roles were in the telenovelas. Luna had his big break in 2001 when he was cast in the critically acclaimed Y tu mamá también , once again alongside Gael García Bernal. He is making a name for himself in the United States market, having starred alongside Bon Jovi in Vampires: Los Muertos (2002) and the Academy Award-winning Frida (2002). He was also in the western Open Range, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights, The Terminal, and Criminal. In 2008, he appeared in the Harvey Milk biopic Milk playing Milk's emotionally unstable lover Jack Lira. In 2011, Luna played the male lead in Katy Perry's music video, The One That Got Away.[15]

Alfonso Cuarón[edit]
Film director Alfonso Cuarón has been noted for both his Mexican and American films. His works include the Mexican films Sólo con tu pareja (1991), his feature debut, and the critically acclaimed, Academy Award-nominated film Y tu mamá también, as well as A little princess (1995), the Charles Dickens contemporary adaptation Great expectations (1998), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004) and, highly acclaimed dystopian thriller Children of Men (2006).

Guillermo del Toro[edit]
Film director Guillermo del Toro directed his film debut Cronos in 1993. He has directed Mimic (1997), El espinazo del Diablo (The Devil's Backbone) (2001), Blade II (2002), Hellboy (2004), and Hellboy 2 all within the same fantastic/horror treatment. His film, El Laberinto del Fauno (Pan's Labyrinth) (2006) was critically acclaimed and was nominated for an Academy Award in the Best Foreign Language Film category.

Rodrigo Prieto[edit]
Cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto started his career with small Mexican short and feature length films. His big break came with his work in Amores Perros, in which he captures the dramatic urbanity of Mexico City. This work impressed Curtis Hanson, who asked him to shoot 8 Mile. He has worked with very renowned directors like Spike Lee (25th Hour), Oliver Stone (the documentaries Comandante about Fidel Castro, and Persona Non Grata, about Yassir Arafat, and Alexander starring Colin Farrell) and Ang Lee (Brokeback Mountain, one of his most recognized works, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award, and Lust, Caution). He also shot Frida in Mexico. He continued to work with Alejandro González Iñarritu in 21 Grams and, Babel.

Erik Stahl[edit]
Filmmaker, comedian, actor, singer and TV Guide, Erik Stahl's real name is Erik De La Torre Stahl. On July 27, 2007 The Charles Aidikoff screening one of the Academy Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences presented his documentaries, "Voila Paris Je T'Aime", and "Children in Uganda Need Help". Other films included Road Of Silence, Last Confession, 2nd Adam and The Other Side Of The Lake The Purple Girl. Erik Stahl was seen in Academy Awards 2007, Grammys 2007 and hosting the TV show On The Road To Hollywood for MTV and VH1 on line.

Henner Hofmann[edit]
Cinematographer Henner Hofmann started his career in Mexico City with films like La Leyenda de una Mascara, Ave Maria, and Nocturno a Rosario and international productions filmed in Mexico. He has work in American films with directors like Tony Scott, Joe Johnston, Stephen Gyllenhaal, The Warden of the Red Rock starring James Caan, Brian Dennehy and David Carradine, The Time of Her Time a Norman Mailer story directed by Francis Delia and GallowWalker with Wesley Snipes, also with John Carpenter in Vampires: Los Muertos. He is the director of the Centro de Capacitación Cinematográfica in Mexico City.

Emmanuel Lubezki[edit]
Five-times Academy Award nominated cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki "El Chivo" started his career along Alfonso Cuarón with Sólo con tu pareja, A little princess and Great expectations. These films caught the eye of many Hollywood directors such as Tim Burton (Sleepy Hollow), Michael Mann (Ali) and Terrence Malick (The New World). He has also shot Meet Joe Black (1998), The Cat in the Hat (2003) and Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events (2004). He has continued to work with Cuarón in Y tu mamá también and, Children of men, for which he has received critical praise and various awards, including the 63rd Venice International Film Festival for Best Technical Contribution. Lubezki has also worked with a variety of major directors, including Mike Nichols (The Birdcage, 1996), Tim Burton (Sleepy Hollow, 1999), Michael Mann (Ali, 2001), Terrence Malick (The New World, 2005, The Tree of Life, 2011). Martin Scorsese (Shine a Light, 2007, as camera operator under supervision of cinematographer Robert Richardson) and The Coen Brothers (Burn After Reading, 2008). He has been nominated for Five Academy Awards.

Demian Bichir[edit]
His American debut occurred in the movie In the Time of the Butterflies (2001) starring Salma Hayek. Later he got some recognition when he depicted Fidel Castro in Steven Soderbergh's biopic Che (2008) on the life of Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara. He was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his performance in A Better Life,[16] where Bichir plays Carlos Galindo, an undocumented Mexican gardener who goes with his son to find his stolen vehicle while trying to convince his so
Based on the best-selling novel by Laura Esquival, this internationally popular romantic fable from Mexico centers on a young woman who discovers that her cooking has magical effects. The tale's heroine, Tita, is the youngest of three daughters in a traditional Mexican family. Bound by tradition to remain unmarried while caring for her aging mother, Tita nevertheless falls in love with a handsome young man named Pedro. Pedro returns her affection, but he cannot overcome her family's disapproval, and he instead marries Tita's elder sister. The lovestruck young woman is brutally disappointed, and her sadness has such force that it infects her cooking: all who eat it her feel her heartbreak with the same intensity. This newly discovered power continues to manifest itself after the wedding, as Tita and Pedro, overcome by their denied love, embark on a secret affair. Director Alfonso Arau, Esquival's husband at the time, presents the acts of love and cooking with the same glossy, sensual sheen. Indeed, despite occasional digressions into a magical realist tone, the film often takes on the gloss of Hollywood romance. This combination of traditional melodrama and exotic fairy tale proved extremely popular with audiences, particularly in the United States, where it became one of the highest grossing foreign language films at the time.
ke Water for Chocolate is a 1992 film in the style of magical realism based on the popular novel, published in 1989 by first-time Mexican novelist Laura Esquivel.[2] It earned all 11 Ariel awards of the Mexican Academy of Motion Pictures, including the Ariel Award for Best Picture, and became the highest grossing Spanish-language film ever released in the United States at the time.[3]

Contents [hide]
1 Plot
2 Characters
3 Double entendre of title
4 Filming Location
5 Awards
6 References
7 External links
Tita, as the youngest daughter in a traditional Mexican family, is forbidden to marry. Therefore, when Pedro, the boy she has fallen in love with, and his father come to ask for Tita's hand in marriage, Tita's mother, Mama Elena, refuses. Mama Elena offers her other daughter, Rosaura, and Pedro accepts in order to be closer to Tita. Tita bakes the wedding cake with tears causing vomiting, crying, and a longing for their true love in all those who eat it.

A year later, and Tita's emotions again infuse a meal that she cooks. Her heat and passion transfers to her sister Gertrudis, who, overcome with lust, attempts to cool down by taking a shower, only to be scooped up by a passing revolutionary soldier.

Rosaura gives birth to a baby boy, but Tita is the one who is able to nurse the child. Mama Elena is suspicious of Tita's intentions, and sends Rosaura and Pedro away. Tita blames the consequent death of the baby on her mother and, grief-stricken, Tita falls into a catatonic-like state.

Dr. John Brown takes Tita away to care for her in Texas. Tita eventually enters into a relationship with Dr. Brown after recovering, and reluctantly plans to marry him. Mama Elena is killed by revolutionaries, so Rosaura and Pedro return for the funeral.
Rosaura soon gives birth to a second child, Esperanza. Soon after, Dr. Brown is called away and Pedro and Tita succumb to their emotions and sleep together. Mama Elena returns to haunt Tita, convincing her that she is pregnant with Pedro's child. That night, Gertrudis returns to the ranch as a general with her revolutionary husband. She helps Tita banish Mama Elena and realize it was an imaginary pregnancy. Upon Dr. Brown's return, Tita tells him that she slept with another man and he reluctantly allows her to break their engagement.
Twenty years pass, and Rosaura dies of "severe digestive problems". Pedro confesses to Tita that he still loves her, and wants to marry her. Tita and Pedro then make love, but Pedro dies just as he has a sensuous orgasm. Tita then swallows matches, setting the entire ranch on fire in the process. The daughter of Esperanza, nicknamed "Tita" after her great-aunt, returns to the ranch and finds only Tita's cookbook, which contained her recipes and told of her and Pedro's love story.

Lumi Cavazos as Tita
Marco Leonardi as Pedro Muzquiz
Regina Torné as Mamá Elena
Mario Iván Martínez as Doctor John Brown
Ada Carrasco as Nacha
Yareli Arizmendi as Rosaura
Claudette Maillé as Gertrudis
Pilar Aranda as Chencha
Farnesio de Bernal as Cura
Joaquín Garrido as Sargento Treviño
Rodolfo Arias as Juan Alejándrez
Margarita Isabel as Paquita Lobo
Sandra Arau as Esperanza Muzquiz
Andrés García Jr as Alex Brown
Regino Herrera as Nicolás
Genaro Aguirre as Rosalio
David Ostrosky as Juan de la Garza
Brígida Alexander as Tia Mary
Amado Ramírez as Padre de Pedro
Arcelia Ramírez as la bisnieta de Tita
Socorro Rodríguez as friend of Paquita
Rafael García Zuazua as godfather
Rafael García Zuazua Jr as Alex (child)
Edurne Ballesteros as Tita (teenager)
Melisa Mares as Rosaura (child)
Gabriela Canudas as Rosaura (teenager)
Natalia De la Fuente as Gertrudis (child)
Beatriz Elías as Gertrudis (teenager)
Double entendre of title[edit]
The title was literally translated from the phrase como agua para chocolate, which is a common expression in Mexico and was the inspiration for Laura Esquivel's novel title.

Filming Location[edit]
Ciudad Acuna, Mexico
Eagle Pass, Texas
Piedras Negras, Coahuila
The film won the Ariel Award for best picture.
Margarita Isabel won the Ariel Award for Best Actress in a Minor Role for her performance in this film.
Jump up ^
Jump up ^ Laura Esquivel Biography
Jump up ^ Neibylski, Dianna C (1998). "Heartburn, Humor and Hyperbole in Like Water for Chocolate". In Hengen, Shannon. Performing Gender and Comedy: Theories, Texts and subtext. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 90-5699-539-1. Google excerpt.
External links[edit]
Official website
Como agua para chocolate at the Internet Movie Database
Like Water for Chocolate at Box Office Mojo
Like Water for Chocolate at Rotten Tomatoes
In Mexico, so I have learned, hot chocolate is made with water, not milk. The water is brought to a boil and then the chocolate is spooned into it. A person in a state of sexual excitement is said to be "like water for chocolate." And now here is a movie where everyone seems at the boil, their lives centering around a woman whose sensual life is carried out in the kitchen, and whose food is so magical it can inspire people to laugh, or cry, or run naked from the house to be scooped up and carried away by a passing revolutionary.
"Like Water for Chocolate" creates its own intense world of passion and romance, and adds a little comedy and a lot of quail, garlic, honey, chiles, mole, cilantro, rose petals and corn meal. It takes place in a Mexican border town, circa 1910, where a young couple named Tita and Pedro are deeply in love. But they are never to marry. Mama Elena, Tita's fearsome mother, forbids it. She sees the duty of her youngest daughter to stay always at home and take care of her. Tita is heartbroken - especially when Pedro marries Rosaura, her oldest sister.
But there is a method to Pedro's treachery. During a dance at the wedding, he whispers into Tita's ear that he has actually married Rosaura in order to be always close to Tita. He still loves only her. Weeping with sadness and joy, Tita prepares the wedding cake, and as her tears mingle with the granulated sugar, sifted cake flour, beaten eggs and grated peel of lime, they transform the cake into something enchanting that causes all of the guests at the feast to begin weeping at what should be an occasion for joy.
The movie is narrated by Tita's great niece, who describes how, through the years, Aunt Tita's kitchen produces even more extraordinary miracles. When Pedro gives her a dozen red roses, for example, she prepares them with quail and honey, and the recipe is such an aphrodisiac that everyone at the table is aroused, and smoke actually pours from the ears of the middle sister, Gertrudis. She races to the outhouse, which catches fire, and then, tearing off her burning clothes, is swept into the saddle of a passing bandolero.
(She returns many years later, a famous revolutionary leader.) "Like Water for Chocolate" is based on a novel by Laura Esquivel. Like "Bye Bye Brazil" and parts of "El Norte," it continues the tradition of magical realism that is central to modern Latin film and literature. It begins with the assumption that magic can change the fabric of the real world, if it is transmitted through the emotions of people in love. And Lumi Cavazos, as Tita, is the perfect instrument for magic, with her single-minded lifelong devotion to Pedro - a love that transcends even their separation, when the evil Mama Elena dispatches Pedro and Rosaura to another town, where their baby dies for lack of Tita's cooking.
The movie takes the form of an old family legend, and the narrator is apparently Esquivel. It gains the poignancy of an old story that is already over, so that the romance takes on a kind of grandeur. What has survived, however, is a tattered but beautiful old book containing all of Aunt Tita's recipes, and who has not felt some sort of connection with the past when reading or preparing a favorite recipe from a loved one who has now passed on? Imagine, for example, melting some butter and browning two cloves of garlic in it. Then adding two drops of attar of roses, the petals of six roses, two tablespoons of honey and 12 thinly sliced chestnuts to the mixture, and rubbing it all over six tiny quail and browning them in the oven. Serve, of course, with the remaining rose petals. And stand back.