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Chapter 11 Bio
Terms in this set (36)
The process by which genetic information flows from genes to proteins
consists of transcribed genes, an operator, and a promoter
In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines a(n)
The ___________ in E. coli prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment.
The lac operon of E. coli is ________ (active/inactive) when the repressor is bound to lactose.
many, cellular differentiation
A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with _______ (few/many) different specialized cells. The descendant cells specialize by a process known as_________________.
Differentiation of the zygote into a multicellular organism results from selective _____ expression. The zygote contains _______ (all/some) of the genetic information required for the development of many different cell types
The basis of cellular differentiation is selective _________________.
A _________ consists of DNA wound around a protein core of eight histone molecules.
Prokaryotes _____(have/don't have) proteins analogous to histones.
not expressed at all
Highly compacted chromatin is generally _______ (expressed/not expressed at all).
DNA packing tends to ________(prevent/promote) gene expression.
In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell becomes a(n) _____________.
The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat results from X chromosome ________(activation/inactivation).
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells use ________ (proteins or nucleic acids?) to turn certain genes on or off.
Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called ______________.
___________ are DNA sequences to which activator proteins bind.
___________ bind to DNA sequences and inhibit the start of transcription
more than one
Alternative RNA splicing permits a single gene to code for ________(one/more than one) polypeptide
The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called _______.
RNA splicing involves the removal of ______ from the molecule
When a salamander regenerates a lost limb certain cells in the limb dedifferentiate, divide, and then _____________ to form a new limb.
Some plants can be cloned from a single cell because plant cells can _______________and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant.
The cloning of Dolly the sheep demonstrated that the nuclei from differentiated mammalian cells can retain their _____(full/partial) genetic potential
The use of cloning to produce special embryonic stem cells is called ___________________
present ,embryonic, adult
Adult stem cells are _________(present/not present) in adult tissues. Adult stem cells are partway along the road to differentiation. __________(embryonic/adult) stem cells can give rise to all the different specialized cells in the body. _________(embryonic/adult) stem cells have limited therapeutic potential because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues.
A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n)_____________
Many proto-oncogenes code for growth factors. A mutation must occur in a cell's DNA for a proto-oncogene to become a(n) ___________.
______________ are normal genes with the potential to become oncogenes.
A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene may __________(stimulate/stop) cell division, which can contribute to the onset of cancer.
damage to a tumor-suppressor gene cause cancer?
the carcinogen known to cause the most cases and types of cancer is __________.
Factors that alter DNA and make cells cancerous are called __________.
Eating 20-30 grams of plant fiber daily and reducing the intake of animal fat can _________ (reduce/increase) your risk of developing colon cancer.
X-rays and ultraviolet radiation are two of the most potent ________
Mutagens ____ (are/are not) usually carcinogens
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