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social science 1
exam 1 questions
Terms in this set (50)
What is the purpose of the Social Science 1A course?
To understand how social sciences depict/contribute to the understanding of social problems.
What is the definition of social science?
-The study of human beings and their social world
-the field of study concerned with society and human behaviors
What are the various social sciences?
What are the different ways of obtaining knowledge and answering questions?
Who is Francis Bacon?
- Father of Modern Science (scientist)
- Scientific Method
- separated science from church
- uses induction logic
3. Warned against faulty thinking
4. Knowledge is power
What are Bacon's doctrines of empiricism and induction?
-Doctrine of empiricism:
-Knowledge comes from observations
-Use induction to form conclusions
-We cannot study what we cannot observe
-Doctrine of induction
-use observations to form conclusions which lead to empirical laws = observations theory (- not from logic or innate knowledge
- can't study immaterial phenomena, cannot study what we cannot observe, cannot study immaterial phenomena
How does induction work as a means to discover empirical laws?
-Make observations, and then come to a conclusion
-get data and look for patterns
Why did Bacon criticize the use of hypotheses in science?
-theories are only guesses, and have tendency of bias
-We should not test hypotheses drawn from theories
What did Bacon mean by "knowledge is power?"
-Knowledge is the force that drives history
- must use science to improve technology --> lead to a utopia (make the world a better place)
- science can solve our problems --> utopia
-- gaining knowledge --> opportunity to improve ourselves
What is the practical purpose of the social sciences for Bacon?
-to form conclusions from observations
-we don't make a guess before we start
-we go out and observe and principles will merge
Know the meaning of the four Idols of the Mind that interfere with the search for correct knowledge according to Bacon.
1) Idols of the Tribe --> (errors that are inherent in the human condition)
a. We make errors because of the limitations of our senses
2) Idols of the Cave --> (errors due to individual characteristics)
a. Our knowledge is derived from our experience, interests, and observations.
3) Idols of the Market Place-->(errors due to misuse of words)
4) Idols of the Theatre -->(Trying to use logic on something that is beyond reasoning-cannot be explained with logic)
a. Ex: trying to explain what life after death is like
Why did Rene Descartes support the use of theory in science?
- theory: logical guess that predicts and explains
- we need theories to explain our observations (Theory + empirical facts)
- data + understanding
-everyone science have to have a theory
-She did not trust Bacon's rely on senses
What analogy did Descartes use to indicate the importance of theory?
-Analogy : Watch
- can observe a watch for time
- but need to look closer (inside) for its components (know how it works)
-and understand how the watch works first by looking at the mechanism
--We make a guess based on a theory test it with data.
-We make prediction of hypothesis and collect observation.
-Analyze them and refine our theory.
-Theory allows us fill in areas where we can't make observation like astronomy
Auguste Comte is the originator of positivism for the social sciences. What is this doctrine?
-founder of social science
- it is our duty to determine how to improve society- to make the world a better place
-Hierarchy of science
-Law of the three stages
What is logical positivism?
-a 20th century philosophical movement that holds that meaningful statements aboput the natural world are true only is verified by observation and experiment.
- objective, systematic, logical science based on observations
- based on presumptions that we can apply methods used in Natural Sciences to study human behavior in society
What is operationalism?
have to state how we are going to measure our terms as part of the definition. (ex. To state height we must state the instrument we will use to measure it).
What is pragmatism?
A theory that makes good predictions. It is useful and predicts accurate outcomes.
According to Comte, societies pass through three stages of development. What are these stages?
1) Supernatural Stage (theological explanations)- God, religion, etc.
2) Metaphysical Stage - unknown forces (karma, faith, superstitions)
3) Scientific (positive) Stage - accepts positivism, science reveals causes and effects, technology improves society, rejected by social sciences
Comte arranged the natural and social sciences into a hierarchy. What is the hierarchy of the natural sciences (Comte)?
-Sociology (Social physics)
What did Comte mean by the "religion of humanity"?
- primacy of emotion over intellect
- memorial to his/her beloved
Who should be the members of the "religion of humanity?"
-philosophers, working class, women
What did it cost Comte for promoting the "religion of humanity"?
-cost his legacy because he left out science
What is the rationale for Comte's hierarchy?
- to quantify human behavior by reducing human behavior to other sciences
What analogy did Isaac Newton use to describe the world?
UNIVERSE is a machine composed of atoms operating according to fixed laws
-Every outcome has a cause and science can figure out the causes
-If we know everything leading up to the event, we can determine the outcome
-Losses of gravity, it's a fix laws operating
Newton says we require that we know the physical mechanism for causes and they will be dis by science when we have the technology developed
How have the natural sciences aided the development of the social sciences?
Natural Sciences concepts in Social Sciences
- gravity = affiliation
- gene = meme
- natural selection = Social Darwinism
-Longer to develop
-Goal—understanding, explanation, WHY
-Subject matter always changingDYNAMIC
-lacking in individuality
-physical mechanisms for causes
-goal—find causes in external/physical
-subject matter STATIC
Today, is it possible to put the natural sciences into a logical hierarchy?
If so, what is this hierarchy?
(What is the current logical hierarchy for the natural sciences?)
Social Sciences (Complex) - Units of Analyssis are unique, explanation + understanding, Dynamic
-Biology Units of Analysis are unique and not unique
-Mathematics (Simple) (static)
Is it possible to put the social sciences into a logical hierarchy?
If not, why not?
(Why is it not possible to put the social sciences into a logical hierarchy?)
-Social Sciences overlap each other.
-And sometimes they overlap with some of the natural sciences.
Compared to the natural sciences, is the subject matter of the social sciences static or dynamic? What does this distinction mean?
Social Sciences = dynamic
Natural Sciences = static
-Subject matter is constantly changing in the social science. The society is changing. Culture is changing and atom doesn't change. As we move up we get more changes.
-DYNAMIC = constantly changing in soc sci, theories change over time as we learn more and have better technology; culture also changes
-STATIC = NEVER CHANGING
What is the difference between "explanation" and "understanding" in science? Do the social sciences use both principles?
EXPLANATION = asking how
UNDERSTANDING = asking why
Soc Sci uses both principles!!!!
Social science wants understanding and explanation of different goals. We want to know why
Can the LaMarckian view of evolution help explain any phenomenon in the social sciences?
- Evolution—simple life forms came into existence from dead matter and became more complex
- Organisms inherit traits acquired during their parents' lifetime
- Species are changed into other species
- Spontaneous generation
- Organisms altered their behavior in response to environmental change
What is a meme and what is the function of a meme?
-a unit of intellectual or cultural information passed from one person (brain) to another (tunes, ideas,
catch-phrases, fashion, ads, ways of making pots, etc.)
-a piece of cultural info (beliefs, norms, behaviors, attitude) passed down to next generations (verbally/written)
explains how culture changes so quickly
What are the three characteristics of a scientific law?
1) describes an observation in nature
2) can be tested and probably disproved
3) will always remain a law (wouldn't change into a theory)
-Universal, based on observation, causal explanations
How do scientific laws differ in the social sciences from the natural sciences?
Social science cannot state causes with certainty, only probability
In lecture, we reviewed the "research wheel".
Please know the characteristics of this wheel.
data --> theory --> hypothesis --> experiment --> cycle (CYCLE)
data --> theory = INDUCTION (induction from data)
theory -- hypothesis = DEDUCTION (Deduction from the theory)
We begin with a theory.
What are the necessary stages in planning an experiment?
2) define term
3) research topic background
4) generate hypotheses
5) choose research design (need consultation)
6) analyze data
7) report results & conclusion --> publishing
major research methods used in the social sciences
-descriptive: Describes the participants in the study
-relational/correlational: looks for relationships between the participant and the data (correlations and patterns).
-experimental: finds causes and effect.
-secondary data analysis
What are the ethical rules for social science research?
1) voluntary participation
2) informed consent
4) no harm
5) debriefing (talk to the participants)
all of these are enforced by Institutional review boards (IRB)
What experiments started the interest in the ethics of social science research?
- Germans did cruel experiments with humans
- ex. throw them into water to see how long if would take them to die
-Began in Nuremburg Trials (Germany)
-Weren't enforced until the late 60s because of the unethical experiments
-Institutional Review Boards (IRB)—enforce Ethnical Rules
Why are the Milgram and Zimbardo studies considered unethical?
- might cause psychological problems and cause people to trust less
- students forgot who they are - the research study became REALITY - psychological, physical, emotional harm
-they forgot that they are volunteering
-into 2 groups : prisoners and guards
-Students become abusive
-there are no informed consent
What is the Institutional Review Board?
- get federal funds, has to look at every research with human subjects in terms of ethics
What did many leading Darwinists advocate in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
Nazi Extermination Act
What do movements of infanticide, eugenics, and euthanasia represent?
Who was Ernst Haeckel?
He used Darwin's theory to declare that some people were superior to others; and that people with defectsshould be sterilized or die because it weakens society.
How did the views of Haeckel and others challenge the view that human life was to be protected and valued?
1) The individual is nothing; the species is everything. - no souls, no individual policies, no individual exceptions
2) Do not make the unequal equal. - criticize communism, Christianity, humanism which state everyone is created equally
Who founded logical positivism and what is it about?
- founded by the Vienna Circle
- movement that holds that meaningful statements about the natural world are true only if verified byobservation and experiment --> knowledge comes from science
What is Asch's experiment about?
- conformity experiment
-which of the three lines match to the card on the left. Will you follow the majority or you follow your own? the study shows that majority of people follow on their own.
-Visual perception, but its really about the conformity.
What is Stanley Milgram's experiment about?
-1962- Yale University
1962—Yale University Stanley Milgram Obedience to Authority Study
- Origination of Idea—Nuremburg Trials
- Goal—see if German and American people are different on following authority
- Ethical Problems—deception,
- students forgot who they are
- the research study became REALITY
- psychological, physical, emotional harm
What is Zimbardo's experiment about? Stanford university.
1971—Stanford University Philip Zimbardo Prison Study
-Origination of idea—similar to Milgram
-Goal—wanted to see people's behaviors in a specific context (in prison)
-Ethnical Problems—mental unstability, physical and emotional abuse, no informed consent, sickness, stress, etc.
What is Humphreys' experiment about?
- Tea Room Trade
- Goal: tried to change stereotype of the idea that "homosexuals are part of the mainstream society"
Why is Hymphreys' studies unethical?
- illegal acts (lied to DMV to get people's addresses)
- no one ever knew they were part of his research studies
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