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Terms to pass the crap out of the foundations of reading MTEL

Direct instruction

The teacher explicitly announces to the class that a strategy will be taught.


"sounding out" a printed sequence of letters based on knowledge of letter sound correspondence.


to change a message into symbols. for example, readers change oral language into writing.


to change information from one code into another, as recording writing into oral speech.

phonological awareness

the ability to recognize the sounds of spoken language and how they can be blended together, segmented, and switched/manipulated, to form new combination of words.

phonemic awareness

the understanding that words are composed of sounds
listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/

running record

recorded data that the teacher may use to differentiate instruction.

semantic cues

hints that students can discern from the reading to help them make sense of the text.

ability grouping

grouping of children with similar needs for instructional purposes. changes throughout the year as childrens needs change.


a pair of letters used to write one phoneme.


the ability to decode words with minimal use of attentional resources.


the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning.

cloze procedure

the procedure of filling in a missing word

alphabetic principle

the knowledge that written words are composed of letters which represent sounds.

oddity task

recognizing the member of set that is different among the group

balanced literary approach

a combination of teaching phonics and whole language instruction


the study of word meaning


the study of the rules that govern the ways words combine to form phrases.

criterion-reinforced tests

tests where children are measured against criteria which are uniform to all test takers.
indicates which concepts have been taught and which ones need review.

norm-reinforced tests

children are measured against each other.
measured in percentiles.
does not track progress, just comparison.

test reliability

consistency of the test.

instructional reading level

95% accuracy level.
or 92-97%


the initial consonant sound in a word


the vowel and the rest of the syllable that follow the onset.


a gliding, monosyllabic speech shound varying in quality but help as a single sound. examples -oi as in toy, -ow as in low, -ou as in loud, -oo as in loon, etc...

systematic or explicit phonics

students are taught the rules and exceptions, not instructed to memorize.

short vowels

five single letter vowels when they produce the sounds cat, bet, sit, hot, cup.

long vowels

homophonous with the names of the single letter vowels like, baby, meter, tiny, broken, humor.


syllables include those wherein a vowel followed by an r has a different sound from its regular pattern.

book handling skills

skills such as orienting a book correctly and recognizing the beginning, middle and end.

letter sound correspondence

refers to the identification of sounds associated with individual letters and letter combination.

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