Only $35.99/year

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 13 Notes

Terms in this set (52)

A. Two (or more) of he following, reach present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated). At least one of these must be (1), (2), or (3):
1. Delusions
2. Hallucinations
3. Disorganized speech (e.g. frequent derailment or incoherence).
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
5. Negative symptoms (i.e. diminished emotional expression or avolition).
B. For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance level of functioning in one or more major areas, such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, is markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood adolescence, there is failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational functioning).
C. Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6-month period include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e. active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or by 2 or more symptoms listen in criterion A presence in an attenuated form (e.g. odd beliefs, usual perceptual experiences).
D. Schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features have been rules out because either 1) no major depressive or manic episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or 2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, they have been present for a minority of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.
E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.
F. If there is a history of autistic spectrum disorder or a communication disorder of childhood onset, the additional diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations, in addition to the other required symptoms of schizophrenia, are also present for at least 1 month (or less of succeddfully treated).
Specify if:
With Catatonia
A. 2 (or more) of the following, each present for significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated). At least one of these must be (1), (2), or (3):
1. Delusions
2. Hallucinations
3. Disorganized speech (e.g. frequent derailment or incoherence).
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
5. Negative symptoms (i.e. diminished emotional expression or avolition).
B. An episode of the disorder lasts at least 1 month but less than 6 months. When the diagnosis must be made without waiting for recovery, it should be qualified as "provisional".
C. Schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features have been rules out because either 1) no major depressive or manic episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or 2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, they have been present for a minority of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness.
D. The disturbance is not attributed to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.
Specify if:
With good prognostic features: This specifier requires the presence of at least 2 of the following features: onset of prominent psychotic symptoms within 4 weeks of the first noticable change in usual behavior or functioning; confusion or perplexity; good premorbid social and occupational functioning; and absence of blunted or flat effect.
Without good prognostic features: this specifier is applied if two or more of the above features have not been present.
Specify if:
With catatonia
A. The presence of one (or more) delusions with a duration of 1 month or longer.
B. Criterion A for schizophrenia has never been met.
Note: Hallucinations if present are not prominent and are related to the delusional theme (e.g. the sensation of being infested with insects associated with delusions of infestation).
C. Apart from the impact of the delusions or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired, and behavior is not obviously bizarre or odd.
D. If manic or major depressive episodes have occurred, these have been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods.
E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition and is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as body dysmorphic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Specify whether:
Erotomanic type: This subtype applies when the central theme of the delusion is that another person is in love with the individual.
Grandiose type: This subtype applies when the central theme of the delusion is the conviction of having some great (but unrecognized) talent or insight or having made some important discovery.
Jealous type: This subtype applies when the central theme of the individual's delusion is that his or her spouse or lover is unfaithful.
Persecutory type: This subtype applies when the central theme of the delusion involves the individual's belief that he or she is being conspired against, cheated, spied on, followed, drugged or poisoned, maliciously maligned, harassed, or obstructed in the pursuit of long-term goals.
Somatic type: This subtype applies when the central theme of the delusion involves bodily functions or sensations.
Mixed type: this subtype applies with no delusional theme predominated.
Unspecified type: This subtype applies when the dominant delusional belief cannot be clerly determined or is not described in the specific types (e.g. referentia delusions without a prominent persecutory or grandiose component).
> Schizophrenia is characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include delusions and hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions.
>The symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into positive, negative, and disorganized. Positive symptoms are active manifestations of abnormal behavior, or an excess or distortion of normal behavior, and include delusions and hallucinations. Negative symptoms involve deficits in normal behavior on such dimensions as affect, speech, and motivation. Disorganized symptoms include rambling speech, erratic behavior, and inappropriate affect.
>Psychotic behaviors, such as hallucinations and delusions, characterize several other disorders; these include schizophreniform disorder(which includes people who experience the symptoms of schizophrenia for less than 6 months); schizoaffective disorder (which includes people who have symptoms of schizophrenia and who exhibit the characteristic of mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar affective disorder); delusional disorder (which includes people with a persistent belief that is contrary to reality, in the absense of the other characteristics of schizophrenia); and brief psychotic disorder (which includes people with one or more positive symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior over the course of less than a month).
> A proposed new disorder - Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome- which includes one or more of the symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations or delusions, but the individual is aware that these are unusual experiences and are not typical for a healthy person.