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SCC Exam 4 Fall 2019
Terms in this set (129)
mental processes that enable you to encode, store, and retrieve your experiences and other information
the inability to remember information that was previoiusly available
process of turning new information into a memory; requires your attention and some effort - such as studying
published the textbook --> Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology; developed a forgetting curve
process of retaining your memories to be used later; requires that you occasionally review and/or use the information
(Ebbinghaus) forgetting curve
revealed two distinct patterns in forgetting: 1- much of what we forget is lost relatively soon & 2-the amount of forgetting eventually levels off
process of recovering memories; requires a trigger or stimulus from the environment (i.e. a test question)
factors that contribute to forgetting
encoding failure, decay, interference, and motivated forgetting
stage model of memory
model of memory with three stages:
1: sensory information from the environmental grabs your attention (sensory memory)
2: you actively encode what you want to remember (short-term memory)
3: the newly encoded memory is stored for later retrieval (long-term memory)
one of the most common reasons for forgetting because we never encoded the information into LTM in the first place
forgetting because you don't use the information and it naturally fades away over time (normal metabolic process of the brain); evidence contradicts this theory because forgetting decreases over time (forgetting curve)
stage of memory that registers information from the enviornment and holds it for a very brief period of time (duration: ~1/2 sec. snapshots); allows us to perceive the world as continuous rather than seperate/disconnected images and sounds
active/working stage of memory in which information is encoded; duration: ~20 sec. and capacity: ~7 (this is sometimes called working memory)
stage where memories are stored; duration: anything over ~20 sec. and capacity: unlimited
memory researcher who showed that memories are not simply recorded but rather are actively constructed and reconstructed
a memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information; ex: suggestive questions
a memory-distortion when the true source of the memory is forgotten or when a memory is attributed to the wrong source
visual sensory memory
also called iconic memory because it's the brief memory of an image or icon (visual snapshot that lasts ~1/2 sec.); these sensory impressions slightly overlap so that we see continuous motions
auditory sensory memory
also called echoic memory because it's a brief memory of sound, like an echo (auditory snapshots lasts up to 4 sec.) which explains why we can hear a question after it was asked even if you weren't paying attention
a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that didn't actually occur
mental or verbal repetition of information in order to remember it beyond the ~20 sec. of short-term memory
an organized cluster of information about a particular topic; useful in forming new memories - allows you to quickly relate something new to something you already know (also contributes to false memories; we fill in the blank if we don't remember)
abbreviating information to reduce the amount of encoding; ex: suprachiasmatic nucleus is remembered as SCN, monoamine oxidase is MAO, etc.
a memory phenomenon in which vividly imagining an event markedly increases confidence that the event actually occured
rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to LTM
factors contributing to false memories
misinformation effect, source confusion, schema distortion, imagination inflation, false familiarity, suggestion, and blending fact and fiction
factors that enhance encoding
rehearsal, applying information to yourself (self-reference effect), and use of visual imagery, mnemonics, distribution of practice (study in two short sessions rather than one long session), study in a variety of ways, study with others, etc.
severe memory loss
loss of memory, especially for episodic information, of the past; backward-acting amnesia due to head trauma
memories of different skills, operations, or actions; ex: buttoning your shirt, tying your shoes, driving
memories of events/experiences in your life (or events that you witnessed); ex: what you did on your 21st birthday, your graduation, taking your driving test, etc.
loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia due to damage specifically to the hippocampus
memories of general knowledge, concepts, facts, and names; ex: who brings you gifts if you've been good at Christmas?
a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information but due to psychological trauma (not head injury); Freud used to call this "repression"
divisions of LTM
explicit memory and implicit memory
when you can't recall information you know you've encoded and stored in long-term memory
a memory phenomenon in which we tend not to notices things going on around us unless we are specifically trying to pay attention; ex: you may not notice if I started teaching class wearing a blue scarf and somewhere in the middle switch to wearing a green scarf (because you're paying attention to what I'm saying rather than what I'm wearing)
information or knowledge (episodic or semantic) that can be consciously recalled and explained; memory with awareness (also called declarative); ex: your wedding (episodic) or who teaches your Gen. Psych. class at FV (semantic)
information or knowledge (procedural) that cannot be consciously recalled but is easy to imply or demonstrate; memory without awareness (also called non-declarative); ex: being able to type without looking at the keyboard but not being able to recall the letters on the bottom row of your keyboard
how to avoid leading an eye-witness
Just say "tell me what you saw", Always tell the eyewitness that the real criminal may not be pictured, Have a computer show suspect pictures one at a time (no multiple choice line ups), Realize that true recognition occurs within 20sec, Don't say anything to them after they've
any trigger (a clue, prompt, hint, smell, song, etc..) that helps you recall information in LTM
loss of memory of our early childhood due to lack of brain development
retrieval cue failure
inability to recall information in LTM because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
loss of memory due to a neurological disorder where the tau protein forms plaques (build-up on the outside, around the dendrites) and tangles (build-up on the inside) which prevent neurons from functioning and ultimately causing them to die
serial position effect
tendency to remember information at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle
loss of memory due to the final stages of severe alcoholism
chronic traumatic encephelopathy
loss of memory due to repeated concussions, usually due to playing sports
tendency to recall the first items in a list
tendency to recall the final items in a list
ways to prevent memory loss
● Stimulate your brain (music lesson)
● Keep your body healthy
● Review (use it or lose it)
● Avoid dangerous activity
having a feeling that you've already experienced something that you're supposedly just experiencing for the first time... possibly due to memory loss
encoding specificity principle
we tend to retrieve the way we encode; ex: it's hard to recall the months in alphabetical order because we didn't encode them that way
ways to enhance your memory
● Distribution of study (2x more effective)
● Proper sleep (consolidation)
● Commit the time (encoding)
● Focus (prevent interference)
● Organize the information (effects)
● Elaborate (make it meaningful to you)
● Explain it (teaching = true mastery)
● Encode in more than one way
● Reviewing (maintain/extend duration)
● Proper overall health (body-mind)
tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting; ex: walking through the house to remember where you put your keys
a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood; ex: if you're sad, you're more likely to remember your dog's death
a vivid, emotionally chared memory with very specific details (may be inaccurate); ex: where you were during 9-11 or your wedding day
any learning strategy that helps memory
grouping of related items together into a single unit for easier remembering; ex: if making a grocery store list, you might try to create a memory for all of the "fruits" you needs, etc.
superior autobiographical memory
this type of memory is a near-perfect ability to recall every episodic memory you've made
this part of the brain stores all your memories, which are distributed throughout the entire brain
the lobe of the brain where most of your long term memories are, and the part that helps specifically with the sequence of events
the lobe of the brain where sensory memories are helping you encode contextual/locational and bodily kinesthetic aspects of memory such as if it was a cold day or if the object you touched for the first time felt smooth, etc.
the lobe of the brain that processes the visual aspects of memories such as the color of someone's hair
the lobe of the brain that processes a wide variety of aspects of memory but especially auditory information such as the sound of someone voice
medial temporal lobe
this part of the temporal lobe helps new short-term memories (specifically semantic and episodic memories) become long-term memories
the part of the limbic system that helps us pay attention to things; helps us determine which things to encode
the part of the limbic system that helps us encode new memories
the part of the limbic system that helps us process the emotional aspects of our memories
a part of the brain that helps us process memories with particular smells
the part of the brain that helps us specifically with procedural memories
the part of the brain that helps with the retrieval of memories
this model of memory points out that memory is NOT like a video recording of information but rather like individual sensory bits of information and that each time we recall a memory, we actually reconstruct these individual bits and create a memory - which explains why memories distort so easily
semantic network model
this model describes memory as a complex interconnection of associations, which is why one memory easily triggers another
this model describes memory as something similar to jello meaning after encoding, the mind needs time to allow the memory to "set" before it's truly going to be kept long-term, which explains why we easily forget things we've encoded (e.g. because it didn't have time to set or other factors such as interference disrupted this process)
this effect of memory describes the correlation between the physical state you are in when you encode and the increase in your ability to recall that information when you are in the same physical state
this effect of memory teaches us that things which stand out are easier to remember
What is the primary disorder under the category of Stress & Trauma-Related Disorders? It features experiencing a life-threatening situation and having intrusive flashbacks.
any number of techniques used to deal with stress; there are over 500 identified strageties
proactive or preventative
coping skills that involve preparing for stressors in advance; for example, saving for retirement
One of the reasons PTSD is perceived by the public as being primarily a disorder that service men deal with is that men are 4x more likely to commit ____________ than women.
physical or behavioral
coping skills that involve doing something active with your body such as exercise, deep breathing, etc.
Stress & Trauma-Related Disorders have a high comorbidity with other mental illnesses. Which overlaps the most in women?
expressive (verbal and non-verbal)
coping skills that involve expressing your emotions creatively such as journaling
cognitive or psychological
coping skills that involve mental processing such as meditation and reflection
Stress & Trauma-Related Disorders have a high comorbidity with other mental illnesses. Which overlaps the most in men?
The number one cause of rape in the U.S. is a belief that men (especially white, wealthy, powerful men) are just doing what's "natural" and shouldn't get into much trouble (especially if the woman is drinking or dressed up). This sense of having a "right" to rape is referred to as:
Another cause of the high rates of rape in the U.S. (1 in 4 women get raped) is that our culture tends to question what the woman (or man) did to get raped. This reduces the number of women willing to try to bring charges against rapists and is known as:
when your coping skills don't help enough (you're having impairments in one or more areas of functioning - such as being able to work, have healthy relationships, and care for yourself), you should seek __________________
Who identified and diagnosed the first somatic disorder (hint, he named the condition hysteria)?
Social or interactive
coping skills that involve being with others such as joining a sports team or going out with friends
Which Freudian "defense mechanism" causes odd bodily sensations of illness (even though it's in their head and they don't actually have any medical cause)?
What is the long-standing psychotherapy approach to treating PTSD?
Unhealthy or masking
coping skills that involve temporary and often harmful behavior such as drinking alcohol and avoiding people or situations rather than actually trying to improve or resolve functioning
What is the newer psychotherapy approach to treating PTSD (that seems to be even more effective than CBT)?
Which somatic disorder features symptoms of illness affecting voluntary motor (or sensory) functions (but with no medical cause)?
Who developed EMDR (i.e. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing)?
EMDR reprograms the way you retrieve traumatic memories by presenting ________________ stimulation (i.e. alternating sounds in the ears or tracking a light with the eyes, etc.).
What is the term for when you overcome PTSD and are even stronger than prior to the trauma?
Because untreated Stress & Trauma-Related Disorders in childhood are linked to other psychological disorders in adulthood, some U.S. schools are teaching kids how to manage their stress. Which method involves having the child provide his/her own bilateral stimulation and positivity?
This is the comfortable state of mind we experience when reality matches our expectations:
Not Otherwise Specified
When people have some symptoms of mental illness but not enough for a specific diagnosis like PTSD, they often get a diagnosis called NOS...what does that stand for?
This is the uncomfortable state of mind we experience when reality doesn't match our expectations (e.g. we think we're medically sick but are told we're mentally ill):
Which type of professional do people with Stress & Trauma-Related symptoms go to for help?
The faulty mental processes or problems with logic and reasoning that can result when we experience cognitive dissonance and can lead to cognitive distortions:
When a medical doctor diagnoses a patient with a stress-related illness (i.e. stress hives, insomnia, etc.) which other professional should he suggest the patient see?
The inaccurate views about reality that cause maladaptive functioning:
The benefits of going to a medical doctor for stress-related illnesses is that some medications can give short-term relief for specific symptoms. Going to a psychologist is recommended if the patient wants __________________ relief.
What are the protective tips on the ends of your chromosomes which stop your DNA from unraveling?
If you are chronically stressed, your telomeres start to degenerate causing to you __________ more rapidly (which shortens your life span).
What is the first treatment step for all somatic disorders; to rule out any actual medical illness?
What is the negative state you are in if your perceive something is adverse or challenging you?
major life events
What category of stressor features situations that happen on a few times over the course of someone's life (such as getting married or having children)?
What category of stressor features frequent and annoying tasks that if you don't do build up and get worse (such as getting bills each month...if you don't pay, they get bigger)?
What category of stressor features situations due to the environment in which you live (such as a low socioeconomic family, abusive partner, or being the victim of a hate-crime/racism)?
Who discovered that stress is dependent on your perception that something is adverse (and the amount of stress is furthermore dependent on your perception that you may not be able to cope with the adversity); he also created the Appraisal Model?
If someone is unable to manage their stress, they often develop symptoms such as high blood pressure, headaches, nausea, premature aging, etc. These are collectively called:
Although there is neurodiversity related to stress, for most people, do major life events put you in a high, medium, or low risk for developing stress-related illnesses?
Although there is neurodiversity related to stress, for most people, do daily hassles put you in a high, medium, or low risk for developing stress-related illnesses?
Although there is neurodiversity related to stress, for most people, do social-cultural factors put you in a high, medium, or low risk for developing stress-related illnesses?
Which specific type of social-cultural stressor is common if you move to a foreign culture?
toxic stress syndrome
Which stress-related illness is seen in children who are neglected (it damages their brain and is something the cause of death)?
Who discovered that if stress is brief or acute, your mind and body quickly return to homeostasis and you are not likely to develop a stress-related illness?
Who discovered that if stress if prolonged or chronic, your mind and body start to deteriorate and you are likely to develop a stress-related illness?
What type of stress is brief and causes the production of catecholamines only?
What type of stress is prolonged and causes the production of corticosteroids?
If someone has chronic stress, about how much aging can they experience after 1 year?
If your perceptual style was influenced by pre-natal factors (the mothers stress while you were in the womb), which category of factors is contributing to your stress?
If your perceptual style was influenced by genetics (you seem to have inherited your stress), which category of factors is contributing to your stress?
If your perceptual style was influenced by your upbringing), which category of factors is contributing to your stress?
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