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75 terms

Psychology 7

STUDY
PLAY
according to the text learning involves
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdraw response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
associative learning
conditioning is the process of
learning associations
the first experimental studies of the associative learning were conducted by
Pavlov
The "psychic secretions" that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were
Conditioned responses
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates
Classic conditioning
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the arrival of their food. This best illustrates the process underlying
Operant conditioning
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Observational learning
John B Watson considered himself to be a(n)
Behaviorist
Last year, Dr Moritano cleaned Natasha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natasha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
classical conditioning
In pavlov's experiments, the dogs salvation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
unconditioned response
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
conditioned stimulus
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouthwatering meal. Later when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
CS
In classical conditioning the _____ signals the impending occurrence of the ______.
CS;US
Extinction occurs when a ____ is no longer paired with a ___.
CS;US
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of
Generalization
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
Discrimination
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
Discrimination
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned
Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of her heart attack is most likely a(n) ____ for Courtney's anxiety.
conditioned stimulis
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
operant conditioning
B.F. Skinners work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called
the law of effect
Shaping is a(n) ____ procedure.
operant conditioning
Five year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teachers initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally for a complete sentence. The teacher using the method of
shaping
An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)
Reinforcer
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance washing the car is a(n)
positive reinforcer
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ____ is to ____.
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response strengthens the response is called a(n)
negative reinforcer
Mason, a stockbroker, runs 2 miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ___ reinforcer .
negative
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will
continue to ask for a treat every time she foes to the store
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ___ schedule.
variable ratio
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ___ schedule.
variable ratio
An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every day he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ___ schedule
fixed-interval
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ___ schedule.
variable-interval
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to __.
reinforcement; punishment
Negative reinforcers ___ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ____the rate of operant responding
increase; decrease
A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
Discrimination
Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning.
cognitive processes
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
latent learning
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
intrinsic motivation
B.F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allowed for both
shaping and immediate reinforcement
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
respondent behavior
when grocery shopping with his mother, 4 year old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should
continue shopping while ignoring his tantrums
A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to
operant learning
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
observational learning
Who highlighted the importance of observational learning?
Bandura
Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
Modeling
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
observational learning
Desensitization and imitation are 2 factors that contribute to
the violence-viewing effect
In Pavlov's experiments on salivary conditioning the US was
presentation of food in the dogs mouth
In pavlovs experiments, the dogs salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
Conditioned response
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing is presented shortly
Before an appropriate US
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrated
generalization
After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ____ for Colin's fear
Unconditioned stimulus
Which of the following is an example of the respondent behavior
Blushing when embarrassed
A Skinner box is a(n)
Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to
Retrieve sticks and balls
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, the only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of
Successive approximations
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
Shaping
Positive reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding
Increase; increase
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ___reinforcement
Intermittent
A fixedratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
Specified number of responses have been made
One the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a _____ schedule
Variable-ratio
Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ____stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is with withdrawal of a(n)____ stimulus following a behavior
Aversive; pleasant
The use of physical punishment may
Have all of these results
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
Extrinsic motivation
According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is
Associative learning
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
Modeling
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile then when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to
Mirror neurons
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated BoBo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
Observational learning
Correlation studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence_____ increased rates of violent behavior
predicts
The Predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ______in conditioning
cognitive processes
Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of
Associative learning