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according to the text learning involves

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdraw response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning

conditioning is the process of

learning associations

the first experimental studies of the associative learning were conducted by


The "psychic secretions" that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were

Conditioned responses

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates

Classic conditioning

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the arrival of their food. This best illustrates the process underlying

Operant conditioning

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

Observational learning

John B Watson considered himself to be a(n)


Last year, Dr Moritano cleaned Natasha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natasha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

classical conditioning

In pavlov's experiments, the dogs salvation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)

unconditioned response

If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)

conditioned stimulus

A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouthwatering meal. Later when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a


In classical conditioning the _____ signals the impending occurrence of the ______.


Extinction occurs when a ____ is no longer paired with a ___.


Spontaneous recovery refers to the

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of


The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called


Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of


Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned

Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of her heart attack is most likely a(n) ____ for Courtney's anxiety.

conditioned stimulis

In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?

operant conditioning

B.F. Skinners work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called

the law of effect

Shaping is a(n) ____ procedure.

operant conditioning

Five year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teachers initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally for a complete sentence. The teacher using the method of


An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)


Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance washing the car is a(n)

positive reinforcer

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ____ is to ____.

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response strengthens the response is called a(n)

negative reinforcer

Mason, a stockbroker, runs 2 miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ___ reinforcer .


Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will

continue to ask for a treat every time she foes to the store

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ___ schedule.

variable ratio

Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ___ schedule.

variable ratio

An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every day he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ___ schedule


Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ___ schedule.


The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to __.

reinforcement; punishment

Negative reinforcers ___ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ____the rate of operant responding

increase; decrease

A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of


Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning.

cognitive processes

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates

latent learning

Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit

intrinsic motivation

B.F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allowed for both

shaping and immediate reinforcement

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?

respondent behavior

when grocery shopping with his mother, 4 year old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should

continue shopping while ignoring his tantrums

A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to

operant learning

Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for

observational learning

Who highlighted the importance of observational learning?


Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to


Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of

observational learning

Desensitization and imitation are 2 factors that contribute to

the violence-viewing effect

In Pavlov's experiments on salivary conditioning the US was

presentation of food in the dogs mouth

In pavlovs experiments, the dogs salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)

Conditioned response

A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing is presented shortly

Before an appropriate US

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrated


After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ____ for Colin's fear

Unconditioned stimulus

Which of the following is an example of the respondent behavior

Blushing when embarrassed

A Skinner box is a(n)

Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward

You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to

Retrieve sticks and balls

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, the only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of

Successive approximations

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of


Positive reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding

Increase; increase

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of

Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ___reinforcement


A fixedratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)

Specified number of responses have been made

One the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a _____ schedule


Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ____stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is with withdrawal of a(n)____ stimulus following a behavior

Aversive; pleasant

The use of physical punishment may

Have all of these results

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves

Extrinsic motivation

According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is

Associative learning

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of


We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile then when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to

Mirror neurons

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated BoBo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of

Observational learning

Correlation studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence_____ increased rates of violent behavior


The Predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ______in conditioning

cognitive processes

Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of

Associative learning

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