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Nutrition chpt 13
Terms in this set (60)
True or false: there are many contradictions among diet and exercise recommendations that are issued by health promotion organizations?
True or false: elite endurance athletes do not develop hypertension, but lesser-trained athletes do?
True or false: Type 2 diabetes is caused by eating too much sugar?
True or false: a sedentary lifestyle is associated with a higher risk for heart disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes?
True or false: being physically active helps to reduce disease risk even if a person is obese?
Many adults who exercise fall into the category of ________ ________. This group, and physically active people have many shared goals. Training is less than that of highly trained athletes, meaning _______ demands are less
1. recreational athletes
The U.S sees a decline in P.A with _______. This process has some inevitable decline, but a large portion of the decline in functioning is due to a decrease in amount and ______ of P.A.
Exercise recommendations for healthy adults ACSM
moderate to vigorous intensity 20-60 min/d
Strength training/resistance training
moderate to hard/very hard
> or equal to 2-3 d/wk
exercises involving balance, agility
> or equal to 2-3 d/wk
> or equal to 20-30 min/day
A chronic disease is one that last for ______ months or more. It can be treated/cured?
_________ percent of people in the U.S die from chronic diseases.
treated, but not cured
In approximately 30% of all cancer deaths, what are the three modifiable risk factors?
Chronic diseases develop and worsen with age, often taking many years until ________ become apparent.
Obesity may be related to other chronic diseases through _______
1. poor diet, physical inactivity, excess body wt.
3. inflammation, increase insulin resistance
what are the leading causes of death?
1. heart disease
3. chronic lung disease
environment that promotes increased food intake, consumption of unhealthy foods, lack of physical activity.
one-third of american adults
BMI > 30
35% of men & 40% of women
The rate of obesity doubled from 1980-2005
1. weight gain is/is not an inevitable part of aging.
2. people whose diets consisting of high _______ foods, nuts, whole grains, and dairy gain less weight over time. High intakes of ________ grains predict weight gain over time.
3. there is a strong _________ relationship between physical activity level and obesity. Explain what this means.....
3. inverse, which means the lower level of activity & lower level of cardiovascular fitness, the greater risk of obesity developing.
hormone synthesized by cells in the stomach and makes people feel like eating.
satiety center in brain stem to increase feelings of fullness and decrease food intake.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) definition
increase the release of other neuropeptide by the hypothalamus that are strong simulators of appetite and hunger leading to food intake.
PPY & GLP definition
decrease drive to eat
-40% carbs 30% proteins/fats
-emphasize GI of carbs & don't produce a rapid rise of insulin
-plant based, high fiber, 10% fat
-eat when hungry, stop when full
-avoid meat, fish, low-fat,
-carbohydrate controlled diet consisting of four phases.
-hypocaloric, very low CHO intake results in ketosis, apetite
-metabolic resistance ---> inability to lose wt. or continue to lose weight when consuming a diet containing less than 1000 kcal or 25g carbs
4 phases of atkins diet
Phase 1: induction period and carbs are limited to 20-25g/d
Phase 2 & 3: once dieters are within 15 lbs. of goal weight, that they move through phases 2 and 3 consuming 25-50g/d and 50-80g/d
phase 4: maintenance phase consists of 80-100g/d
Weight watchers diet
-smart points, based on calorie composition
-diet is low in fat and high in fiber
-teaches sensible eating habits
Comparing the effectiveness of various weight loss diets
1. studies have shown the diets just discussed are ________ effective in producing short term ( 1 year) weight loss.
2. weight loss in the first year was ______-______ lbs. weight was typically ________ in the second year.
3. the more restrictive diets were easier/harder for participants to adhere to.
4. Low-fat and low-carb diets are associated with _______ weight loss. it seems that ________restriction and length of time is more important than the composition of the diet, generally speaking.
2. 5-24 lbs.
what are the advantages of restricted-fat diet?
-eliminates nutrient with the greatest caloric density
-fat is easy to overcome
what are the disadvantages of restricted-fat diet?
-low fat/high-carbohydrate diet may increase triglyceride concentrations and decrease HDL
what are the advantages of restricted-carbohydrates diet?
-reduces appetite (due to ketosis)
-high protein intake helps to preserve LBM
-focuses on high-fat and high-protein foods
What are the disadvantages of restricted-carbohydrate diets?
-lack of long-term data on safety or effectiveness
-Risk for gout, kidney stones and osteoporosis
silent killer, strong genetic predisposition.
-lack of recognizable symptoms
-endurance training may reduce hypertension
-high sodium, Low postassium bad
-DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) diet
Type 1 diabetes
-inability to manufacture insulin
-autoimmune disease, destroys beta cells of pancreas
Type 2 diabetes
-prevention (maintain a healthy weight, consume a healthy diet, routine physical activity)
-diseases of the heart and vessels
-25% yearly deaths in the U.S
-role of HDL, LDL
Atherosclerosis-hardening or narrowing of the arteries
-process begins in childhood/adolescence
-symptoms-typically none while developing
-blockage lead to chest pain, heart attack, stroke
what are the major risk factors for heart disease that cannot be changed?
-male sex (gender)
major risk factors that can be changed?
-abnormal blood lipids
-high blood pressure
prevention of heart disease?
maintain or achieve a healthy weight
-consume a healthy diet
-150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise
family history of early heart disease
Moderate risk: 200-239
High risk: >240
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
very high: >189
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
optimal: 60 mg/dl
Normal: M:40-50, F: 50-59
increased risk: M:40 F:50
very high: >500
metabolic syndrome risk factors
obesity and insulin resistance
what is the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome?
-waist circumference: >40 in men, >35 in women
-triglycerides: > or = 150mg
-HDL-C: 40mg in men, 50mg in women
-blood pressure: > or =130 mm Hg systolic or > 85 diastolic
-fasting glucose: > or = 100mg/dl or drug treatment
* any three of the five criteria constitute a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome
characterized by low bone mineral density
-BMD is usually measured by DEXA
-Normal: -1.0 or above
-Osteopenia (low BMD): -1.0 and -2.5
-Osteoporosis: -2.5 or below
Many cancers are related to lifestyle?
1/3 of all cancer deaths in the U.S are associated with poor diet, inactivity and overweight or obesity.
- maintain or achieve a healthy weight
-routine physical activity
-consume a healthy diet, emphasize plant foods
-limit alcohol consumption
1. For most young and middle-aged adults, ________ is a useful screening tool, it is most predictive when used with ________, a measure of abdominal fat.
2. studies report an _______ between body wt. and chronic disease risk. This suggest a cause-and-effect relationship.
3. the "healthy weight" category is free of disease True or False?
4. ______ are a powerful influence on fat distribution. It is visceral/subcutaneous fat that is more related to an increased risk of chronic disease.
1b. waist circumference
underweight: less than 18.5
healthy weight: 18.5-24.9
Health at Every Size (HAES) is a ______ approach.
2. This approach emphasizes a healthy diet, __________ of eating habits, spiritual well-being, and ________ physical activity.
3. weight loss is an consequence/expectation.
4. Examples of improved metabolic fitness:
4. lowered BP, or improved blood lipid
What are the four major questions that behavior change models consider?
1. what is the motivation to change?
2. what resources are needed?
3. what is the decision-making progress?
4. How are decisions translated into repeated behaviors?
what is the name of the model suggesting knowledge is the driving force behind change?
The knowledge-Attitude-Behavior (KAB) model
what is the health belief model (HBM)?
the primary motivation to change is the risk of contracting a disease, known as the readiness to act.
-limited success since adolescents & young adults do not see themselves being susceptible to chronic disease.
what is the social cognitive theory (SCT)
-3 important issues is: individual's ability to perform the behavior (skill), confidence to perform the behavior, and expected outcomes is the driving force.
Ex: to lift weights, the equipment must be available, and the person must have the skills and confidence to perform this activity.
what are the four stages in the stages of change model?
precontemplation- no intention to change in the near future.
contemplation- intention to change but at a later time.
preparation- intention to change soon, such as within the next month.
Action- change is occuring.
maintenance- change is maintained for at least 6 months.
environmental and policy changes
-changes are needed to be made in communities, schools, workplace.
-encourage P.A. in schools and build bicycling and walking paths
-support healthy food and beverages choices (limit the availability of less healthy food and beverages in schools and public places)
what is creeping obesity?
a slow gain of body fat as adults age
increases in which of the following signals results in an increase in appetite and food intake?
b. peptide YY (PYY)
c. cholecystokinin (CCK)
All of the following hormones are involved in appetite suppression EXCEPT ________.
a. peptide YY
b. neuropeptide Y (NPY)
c. cholecystokinin (CCK)
which weight loss diet is best known as a carbohydrate-controlled diet?
a. Weight Watchers
b. Zone diet
c. Ornish diet
d. Atkins diet
D. Atkins diet
Signals that stimulate the ____ cause feelings of hunger, which result in seeking out and consuming food, or satiety, the feeling of fullness that reduces the desire to eat.
c. pituitary gland
What factor is most likely to increase an individual's risk of type 2 diabetes?
a. decreased red meat consumption
b. consistently low blood lipid levels
c. high sugar intake without weight gain
d. dietary intake that leads to weight gain
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