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51 terms

Psychology Ch. 3

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Nervous System
a complex combinatin of cells that receive information, integrate that info with previous info to generate choices and decisions and guide actions and output based on those decisions
neuron
nerve cell; consists of axon dendrite, outer membrane, cell body and a nucleus
glial cell
hold neurons in place, direct their growth, and keep their chemical enviroment stable
dendrite
detect and carry information from other nerve cells to the cell body
axon
carry signals away from the neuron to points where communication occurs with other neurons; create action potentials
myelin sheath
a fatty substance that wraps around some axons; speed's an action potential's travel down the length of the axon
multiple sclerosis
the body attacks its myelin sheath
action potential
an impulse that runs through an axon
refractory period
rest period between action potentials
neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry the signals across the synapse from one neuron to the next
synapse
the very small gap b/t the presynaptic cell sending a message and the postynaptic cell receiving that message
receptors
usually located on the dendrites of the postsynaptic cell, are stimulated when neurotransmitters fit into them, like a key
peripheral nervous system
The section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord; consisting of nerves spinal and cranial
central nervous system
processes information ; made up of brain and spinal cord
somatic nervous system
voluntary behavior
autonomic behavior
involuntary behavior; beat of the heart
sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes forces you need when you need to deal with fear; fight-or-flight ; heart beat and adrenaline increase
parasympathetic nervous system
works to conserve your resources; slows organ and gland activity to conserve bodys energy
cerebellum
controls coordination; gives our body's postion in space, balance
reticular formation
controls state of arousal as well as waking and sleeping
thalamus
serves as a routing station; receives sensory info from the rest of the body and decides where in the brain to send it; only the sense of smell skips it and goes straight to the brain.
hypothalamus
regulates body temp. and food intake; controls pituitary
amygdala
affects emotional behavior especially agressive and defensive behavior; pleasure center; restrains sexual urges
hippocampus
memory and learning
limbic system
a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
cerebral cortex
makes humans uniquely human
left cerebral hemisphere
controls right side of body;speech; academics- essays, math,science, writing, language, logical thinking
right cerebral hemisphere
controls left side of body, musical and artistic behavior, perception of space, imgaination, body control ans awareness
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that receives sensory information
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Broca's area
front of Frontal lobe; speech articulation
Wernick's area
speech perception (being able to understand spoken word)
lateralization
one side of the brain is dominate in controlling a function
corpus callosum
a bundle of nerve fibers that helps right and left sides of the brain to communicate
neurotransmitter system
a group of neurons that communicate with the same neurotransmitter
acetylcholine
controls the contractions of muscles; cognitive function
norepinephrine
arousal, sleep, learning, mood
serotonin
effects mood, apptite and sleep; carbs effect it
selective seratonin reuptake inhibtors (SRIs)
prozac, Paxic, Zolof
dopamine
1."reward pathway", pleasure; 2.voluntary movement 3.learning and memory 4. emotion; an increase causes Schizophrenia and a decrease causes Parkinsons
GABA
major inhibitory transmitter of the central nervous system; decrease causes Huntington's disease
endorphins
natural opiate -like compounds, can reduce pain or at least adjust our pain tolerance which is hoe we perceive pain and how we express it; causes sleep
endocrine system
made up of cells that communicate with each other to influence many behaviors and mental processes
hormones
chemicals that,when released by the glands of the endocrine system, travel viaa the blood strea and communicate with other cells, thus influencing behavior and mental processes
pituitary gland
master gland b/c it controls tons of behaviors such as it regulates growth, controls thyroid, ovverie/testes, pancreas and adrenal cortex; regulates water and salt metabolism
autoimmune disorders
Group of disease that disrupt the function of the immune system, causing the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue damage.
frontal lobe
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
fight or flight
a reaction caused by adrenaline that prepares one to either fight the stressor or take flight and escape.