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Chapter 11: Work and Families
Terms in this set (36)
Couples often act out the gender roles they saw their parents enact, which is an example of what process?
Identify the scenarios that constitute work-family conflict.
Work-Family Conflict Scenario(s)
Shana often arrives late to pick up her daughter at day care due to her work schedule.
Kenan is penalized on his work evaluation for missing days when he has to take his elderly mother to the doctor.
Not Work-Family Conflict Scenario(s)
John occasionally takes a long lunch to get a break from his high-pressure office during the day.
Andrea is overwhelmed by parenting a newborn and two toddlers.
Maria is an 18-year-old woman living in the United States. Based on what you've learned about the gender division of labor and occupational segregation, identify each prediction about Maria's future as likely or not likely.
Maria will perform market work.
Maria will work in a caregiving field such as nursing or education.
Maria will perform market work, to the exclusion of housework or care work.
Gender will be a minor factor in Maria's career trajectory.
Marion and Cara are a married couple with two children and a dog. They are both employed full-time in the school district, although Marion earns more as a department head in high school, whereas Cara teaches second grade. Both partners try to divide work equally unlike their parents, who held more traditional husband and wife roles.
- both employed
- try to divide work equally
Match each term to its definition.
the exertion of effort to produce or accomplish somethingwork
work performed face-to-face for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of another personcare work
Correct label:care work
work to maintain a household's functionshousework
work done by employees for paymarket work
Correct label:market work
Identify each statement about the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 as accurate or inaccurate.
It is limited to workers who have worked for an employer for at least a year.
It gives workers 12 weeks of unpaid leave to take care of family members.
It covers all government and private sector workers.
It does not cover health insurance during leaves; workers must pay for extensions.
Which educational group has the highest rate of employment for mothers with children?
first graph with college grad total
The ways that societies organize care work and housework are called the -. In the last half century, there has been a remarkable growth of - in the system of care.
- system of care
- market work
Identify gender differences in time use in a typical day, based on this figure.
Women spend more time caring for household members.
Women spend less time watching television.
Men spend more time in paid work.
Not Gender Difference(s)
Women spend more time on nonwork activities.
Men spend more time on grooming.
Identify each work-family conflict issue as characteristic more of professional parents or of working-class parents.
lacking a barrier between work and home life
working too many hours
working multiple jobs
going through periods of not working
working too few hours
From the - until 1996, welfare provided - assistance to mothers in need. After the reform, assistance became temporary, and programs encouraged mothers to -.
What changes in institutions outside the family could make the division of household work and child care more equitable?
government support for paid leave and child care
less occupational gender segregation
fewer depictions of married couples in schools and the media
higher-wage service economy jobs
Identify each reason for the "motherhood penalty" in wages.
Employers discriminate against women with children.
Women often stop working or drop to part-time work after having children.
Work-family conflict interferes with the time and energy women devote to work.
Fathers' earnings increases allow women to shift to less demanding careers.
Identify each social change experienced by the baby boom generation.
increasing rates of women working outside the home
increasing rates of single motherhood
Not Social Change(s)
decreasing rates of divorce
increasing birth rates
Based on this figure, identify the statement that accurately describes the relationship between education and maternal leave.
Women with more education are more likely to obtain paid leave, while those with less education are more likely to lose income due to a leave or other outcome.
Identify each reason why the government might be the ideal institution for pushing reforms that improve work-family life.
Government can incentivize employers to make helpful changes.
Gender roles are deeply entrenched in family life.
Employers are not legally able to implement work-family policies without making legal changes.
The government is a fast-moving institution.
Identify the antipoverty policy that the evidence supports as the best approach.
a broad redistribution policy in which poor households receive a proportional amount of money back at tax time that raises their income to above the poverty line
Identify the causes of occupational gender segregation.
Women do paid work in fields similar to traditionally female work in the home.
Men and women concentrate on different educational tracks.
Gender quotas limit the access women have to traditionally male jobs and vice versa.
Limited access to unions and professional societies keep women out of certain jobs.
In today's political environment, progressive work-family policies are the most innovative at the state and local levels.
Identify each way that the redistribution of care work has impacted how care is given and received.
More people receive care from strangers, who are paid for their labor.
Individuals are not always aware of when and how they contribute to the care of others.
Family has become more central to the distribution of care work.
Individuals receive poorer quality care.
Identify each statement regarding the changes in unpaid work over the last half-century as accurate or inaccurate.
Women have increased their total time doing child care.
Women have decreased their total time doing housework.
Couples have reduced their total time doing housework.
Men have increased their total time doing child care.
Couples have reduced their total time doing child care.
Men have decreased their total time doing housework.
To alleviate the pressures of work-family conflict, some wealthy families employ - to replace unpaid work in the home, while other families may arrange for - to move in with them or may attempt alternating work schedules. These solutions are not always available, however, especially for - mothers.
- service workers
- family members
Identify each statement about women who spend more time doing unpaid work as accurate or inaccurate.
They have less power in the household.
They are at greater economic risk.
They have less fulfilling family lives.
They have more vibrant social lives.
Identify each statement about work and family as more true of the nineteenth century or of the twenty-first century.
Work and family tasks often take place in separate settings.
Family members infrequently work in the same space.
Workers produce more of their own goods.
Children are more likely to be employed.
Identify the explanations for why women perform more housework and child care, on average, than men do.
Women have fewer economic resources with which to bargain.
Women have more time available at home.
Men and women play out the roles they've seen before.
Women have greater resources, allowing them to take time off from work.
Men are not as competent at household tasks.
Based on the research described in the "Valuing Unpaid Work" box, label the family box with the statement that best describes it.
- The adults in this family are more economically vulnerable.
- This family is economically better off.
Unpaid work is equal to what percentage of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP)?
Match each example of work to the institutional arena with which it is most associated.
MarketSELECT A LABELAndres drops his son off at day care in the mornings.
Correct label:Feeling overworked, Rimsa hired a cleaning service to tidy and clean her house once a week.
Correct label:Andres drops his son off at day care in the mornings.
FamilySELECT A LABEL
Correct label:Antoine sings songs to his daughter to get her to fall asleep.
StateSELECT A LABELCarrie was thrilled to learn that her city had expanded free, public pre-kindergarten education, and she enrolled her daughter at once.
Correct label:Carrie was thrilled to learn that her city had expanded free, public pre-kindergarten education, and she enrolled her daughter at once.
Place each example in the part of the figure where it best fits.
- Juanita drives 35minutes to her job as an insurance salesperson.
- Isabelle helps her elderly mother run errands.
- Calvin does laundry every Sunday.
In between Market Work & Care Work
- Jacob works as a registered nurse at a local hospital.
In between Market Work & House Work
- Tim makes extra money mowing lawns in the summers.
Unpaid House work & care work
Hamid makes doctor appointments for his children.
Identify each barrier to part-time work that mothers encounter.
Employers often do not offer the option to work part-time.
Part-time work creates barriers to career advancement.
Part-time work is less fulfilling to mothers.
Their partners prefer they work full-time or not at all.
Select the segment that represents families in which husbands and wives have the most equitable balance of bargaining power.
Husband & Wife within $5,000, 24.9% of couples
The American Time Use Survey shows that men and women perform nearly equal hours of housework.
Economist Heather Boushey argues that policy changes in three areas—Here, There, and Care—would help relieve the burden on working families. Match each area to a policy that would address it.
require employers to offer paid leavehere
reduce working hours in the workweekthere
provide free, public child carecare
Several work reforms have been proposed that would ease work-family conflict. Match each advantage or disadvantage to the appropriate work reform.
Family SupportsSELECT A LABELWorkers could afford to take care of family members without losing time at work.Employers might penalize workers for taking advantage of these programs.
Correct label:Workers could afford to take care of family members without losing time at work.
Correct label:Employers might penalize workers for taking advantage of these programs.
Work Hours FlexibilitySELECT A LABELEmployees could schedule their work around family obligations.
Correct label:The line between work and family time could be blurred.
Correct label:Employees could schedule their work around family obligations.
Work Hours ReductionSELECT A LABELWorkers would have more leisure hours.
Correct label:Providing benefits would be costlier for employers.
Correct label:Workers would have more leisure hours.
What is the percentage of fathers in working-mother households who are the primary caretakers for their children?
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