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1.Weakest part of the skeleton
2.Articulation - site where two or more bones meet
3.Give the skeleton mobility

Synarthroses -

Immovable function of Joint


Slightly movable function of tJoint


Freely movable funtion of Joint

Three structural classifications of joints

Fibrous, Cartilaginous,Synovial

Structural classification

focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present

Functional classification

is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint

There are three types of Fibrous Structural Joints

and gomphoses

Fibrous Structural Joints

The bones are jointed by fibrous tissues
There is no joint cavity
Most are immovable

Fibrous Structural Joints

Occur between the bones of the skull

Fibrous Structural Joints

Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with CT fibers

Fibrous Structural Joints

Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth

Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses

Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament

Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses

Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable

Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses

Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna

Cartilaginous Joints

Articulating bones are united by cartilage

Cartilaginous Joints

Lack joint activity

Two types of Cartilaginous Joints

Synchondroses & symphyses

Classified as a fibrous joint



Peg-in-socket fibrous joint

All joints of the limbs are classified as

Synolvial Joints

The role of the synolvial joint is to

Lubricate joints

Flattened fibrous sacs that reduce friction between adjacent structures are called


The term "nonaxial movement" means

slipping movements only


refers to movement of the radius around the ulna when the palms of the hands are rotated so that the palms are facing upward.

Shrugging one's shoulders primarily involves:

elevation and depression

Knuckle joint

is a condyloid joint

The oblique popliteal ligament:

stabilizes the posterior aspect of the knee joint

The size of the glenoid cavity

contributes to instability of the shoulder joint?

Chewing would involve the.


The presence of uric acid crystals in the joints is a hallmark of:


Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

1.A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
2.All synchondroses are synarthrotic

Examples of Synchondroses

1.Epiphyseal plates of children
2.Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum

Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses

1.Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating bone surface and is fused to an fibrocartilage pad.
2.Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility

Examples of Symphyses

Intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis

Synovial Joints

1.The articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
2.All are freely movable diarthroses

Examples of Synovial Joints

All limb joints, and most joints of the body

Synovial Joints: General Structure

Synovial joints all have the following:
Articular cartilage,Joint (synovial) cavity,Articular capsule ,Synovial fluid and Reinforcing ligaments.

Friction-Reducing Structures

Bursae and Tendon sheath


flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid

Tendon sheath

elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

Plane joints

1.Articular surfaces are essentially flat
2.Allow only slipping or gliding movements
3.Only examples of nonaxial joints

Hinge joints

1.Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped 2.surface on another
3.Motion is along a single plane
Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only

Examples of Hinge joints

Elbow and interphalangeal joints

Pivot Joints

Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a "sleeve," or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another

Examples of Pivot Joints

joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint

Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints

1.Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another
2.Both articular surfaces are oval
3.Biaxial joints permit all angular motions

Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints examples

radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

Saddle Joints

1.Similar to condyloid joints but with greater movement
2.Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface

Saddle Joints Example

carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

Ball and Socket Joints

1.A sphere-like head of a bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another
2.Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints

Ball and Socket Joints Examples

The shoulder and hip joints

Synovial Joints: Shoulder (Glenohumeral)

1.Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement
2.Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula

Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability

Weak stability is maintained by:
1.Thin, loose joint capsule
2.Four ligaments - coracohumeral, and three glenohumeral
3.Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity
4.Rotator cuff (four tendons) encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule

Synovial Joints: Hip (Coxal) Joint

1.Ball-and-socket joint
2.Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum
3.Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket and strong ligaments

Angular Movement Flexion

bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint

Angular Movement Extension

reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased


one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface


The turning of a bone around its own long axis.

Rotation Examples

1.Between first two vertebrae
2.Hip and shoulder joints

Special Movements

1.Supination and pronation
2.Inversion and eversion
3.Protraction and retraction
4.Elevation and depression


1.The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
2.Partially torn ligaments slowly repair themselves
3.Completely torn ligaments require prompt surgical repair


1.Occur when bones are forced out of alignment
2.Usually accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization
3.Caused by serious falls and are common sports injuries
4.Subluxation - partial dislocation of a joint

Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions

Bursitis and Tendonitis


1.An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction
2.Symptoms are pain and swelling
3.Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated


1.Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
2.Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis


1.More than 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
2.Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
3.Symptoms - pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint
4.Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics
5.Chronic forms include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis

Gouty Arthritis

1.Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by an inflammation response
2.Typically, gouty arthritis affects the joint at the base of the great toe
3.In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint
4.Treatment - colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glucocorticoids

Gouti Tophy

Of the distal interphalangeal joints of the toes

Developmental Aspects of Joints

1By embryonic week 8, synovial joints resemble adult joints
Advancing years take their toll on joints including:
2.Intervertebral discs become more likely to herniate
3.OA is inevitable, and all people of 70 have some degree of OA
Prudent exercise (especially swimming) that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key to postponing joint problems


Hold the skeleton together

Pivot Joints

Only uniaxial movement allowed

In which type of joint does a slightly flexible interosseous ligaments bind the bones


Where in the body would it be possible to find a joint called a symphysis

Joint by two vertebrae and thier invertable disc

Some synovial joints such as the knee, contain interior pads of fibrocartilage that help the knee


The type of joint is the most mobile

Ball and socket joint

These joints is a gliding joint

Between the carpals and tarsals

If a person bent thier foot at the ankle upward to the shin it would be an example of


Subdeltoid Bursa

Located between the joint capsule and the tendon of the sub capularis muscle

Rheumotoid Arthritis

Autoimmune disease, Inflammaition will eat away at the joint

Ligaments and Tendons

Only shorten and weaken

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