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81 terms

Joints, Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Joints
1.Weakest part of the skeleton
2.Articulation - site where two or more bones meet
3.Give the skeleton mobility
Synarthroses -
Immovable function of Joint
Amphiarthroses
Slightly movable function of tJoint
Diarthroses
Freely movable funtion of Joint
Three structural classifications of joints
Fibrous, Cartilaginous,Synovial
Structural classification
focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present
Functional classification
is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint
There are three types of Fibrous Structural Joints
Sutures
syndesmoses
and gomphoses
Fibrous Structural Joints
The bones are jointed by fibrous tissues
There is no joint cavity
Most are immovable
Fibrous Structural Joints
Occur between the bones of the skull
Fibrous Structural Joints
Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with CT fibers
Fibrous Structural Joints
Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth
Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses
Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament
Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses
Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable
Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses
Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna
Cartilaginous Joints
Articulating bones are united by cartilage
Cartilaginous Joints
Lack joint activity
Two types of Cartilaginous Joints
Synchondroses & symphyses
Classified as a fibrous joint
Gomphosis
Gomphoses
Peg-in-socket fibrous joint
All joints of the limbs are classified as
Synolvial Joints
The role of the synolvial joint is to
Lubricate joints
Flattened fibrous sacs that reduce friction between adjacent structures are called
Bursae
The term "nonaxial movement" means
slipping movements only
Supination
refers to movement of the radius around the ulna when the palms of the hands are rotated so that the palms are facing upward.
Shrugging one's shoulders primarily involves:
elevation and depression
Knuckle joint
is a condyloid joint
The oblique popliteal ligament:
stabilizes the posterior aspect of the knee joint
The size of the glenoid cavity
contributes to instability of the shoulder joint?
Chewing would involve the.
temporomandibular
The presence of uric acid crystals in the joints is a hallmark of:
Gout
Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses
1.A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
2.All synchondroses are synarthrotic
Examples of Synchondroses
1.Epiphyseal plates of children
2.Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum
Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses
1.Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating bone surface and is fused to an fibrocartilage pad.
2.Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
Examples of Symphyses
Intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis
Synovial Joints
1.The articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
2.All are freely movable diarthroses
Examples of Synovial Joints
All limb joints, and most joints of the body
Synovial Joints: General Structure
Synovial joints all have the following:
Articular cartilage,Joint (synovial) cavity,Articular capsule ,Synovial fluid and Reinforcing ligaments.
Friction-Reducing Structures
Bursae and Tendon sheath
Bursae
flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid
Tendon sheath
elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
Plane joints
1.Articular surfaces are essentially flat
2.Allow only slipping or gliding movements
3.Only examples of nonaxial joints
Hinge joints
1.Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped 2.surface on another
3.Motion is along a single plane
Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only
Examples of Hinge joints
Elbow and interphalangeal joints
Pivot Joints
Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a "sleeve," or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another
Examples of Pivot Joints
joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint
Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints
1.Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another
2.Both articular surfaces are oval
3.Biaxial joints permit all angular motions
Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints examples
radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints
Saddle Joints
1.Similar to condyloid joints but with greater movement
2.Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface
Saddle Joints Example
carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Ball and Socket Joints
1.A sphere-like head of a bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another
2.Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints
Ball and Socket Joints Examples
The shoulder and hip joints
Synovial Joints: Shoulder (Glenohumeral)
1.Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement
2.Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula
Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability
Weak stability is maintained by:
1.Thin, loose joint capsule
2.Four ligaments - coracohumeral, and three glenohumeral
3.Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity
4.Rotator cuff (four tendons) encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule
Synovial Joints: Hip (Coxal) Joint
1.Ball-and-socket joint
2.Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum
3.Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket and strong ligaments
Angular Movement Flexion
bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
Angular Movement Extension
reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased
Gliding
one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
Rotation
The turning of a bone around its own long axis.
Rotation Examples
1.Between first two vertebrae
2.Hip and shoulder joints
Special Movements
1.Supination and pronation
2.Inversion and eversion
3.Protraction and retraction
4.Elevation and depression
5.Opposition
Sprains
1.The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
2.Partially torn ligaments slowly repair themselves
3.Completely torn ligaments require prompt surgical repair
Dislocations
1.Occur when bones are forced out of alignment
2.Usually accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization
3.Caused by serious falls and are common sports injuries
4.Subluxation - partial dislocation of a joint
Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
Bursitis and Tendonitis
Bursitis
1.An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction
2.Symptoms are pain and swelling
3.Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated
Tendonitis
1.Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
2.Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis
Arthritis
1.More than 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
2.Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
3.Symptoms - pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint
4.Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics
5.Chronic forms include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis
Gouty Arthritis
1.Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by an inflammation response
2.Typically, gouty arthritis affects the joint at the base of the great toe
3.In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint
4.Treatment - colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glucocorticoids
Gouti Tophy
Of the distal interphalangeal joints of the toes
Developmental Aspects of Joints
1By embryonic week 8, synovial joints resemble adult joints
Advancing years take their toll on joints including:
2.Intervertebral discs become more likely to herniate
3.OA is inevitable, and all people of 70 have some degree of OA
Prudent exercise (especially swimming) that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key to postponing joint problems
Joints
Hold the skeleton together
Pivot Joints
Only uniaxial movement allowed
In which type of joint does a slightly flexible interosseous ligaments bind the bones
Syndesmosis
Where in the body would it be possible to find a joint called a symphysis
Joint by two vertebrae and thier invertable disc
Some synovial joints such as the knee, contain interior pads of fibrocartilage that help the knee
Menisci
The type of joint is the most mobile
Ball and socket joint
These joints is a gliding joint
Between the carpals and tarsals
If a person bent thier foot at the ankle upward to the shin it would be an example of
Dorsiflexion
Subdeltoid Bursa
Located between the joint capsule and the tendon of the sub capularis muscle
Rheumotoid Arthritis
Autoimmune disease, Inflammaition will eat away at the joint
Ligaments and Tendons
Only shorten and weaken