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bio unit 3 review (excluding lesson 12)
Terms in this set (79)
which of the two types of cells, prokaryotic or eukaryotic, is bigger?
a _______________ cell HAS a NUCLEUS
a _______________ cell DOES NOT have a NUCLEUS and has a NUCLEOID instead
a _______________ cell HAS ORGANELLES
a _______________ cell DOES NOT have ORGANELLES
in what four kingdoms are EUKARYOTIC cells classified?
fungi, plant, animal and protist
prokaryotic cells consist of ONLY _______________
a nucleoid does not have a _______________ unlike a eukaryotic nucleus
_______________ is a region within bacteria where most of the bacterial DNA (nucleic acid) is found, along with RNA and proteins.
_______________ is needed to see a NUCLEOID
transmission electron micrograph/electron microscope
what are 3 features ALL CELLS have in common?
genetic information, cell membranes and ribosomes
what 3 features that are unique to PLANT cells?
cell wall, central vacuole and chloroplast
the BACTERIAL cytoplasm is mostly water but within it are the bacterial _______________, _______________, _______________ and _______________ along with components necessary for _______________ (chemical reactions
inclusions-nuclei, plasmids, ribosomes and storage granules; bacterial metabolism
_______________ is a macromolecule that is MADE UP OF RIBOSOMES
OUTSIDE of the plasma (cell) membrane of most PROKARYOTES is a _______________, which _______________ the cell and helps maintains its shape. In some prokaryotes, is another layer, the _______________.
cell wall; protects; capsule
in PROKARYOTES, the _______________ is a layer of _______________ that protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with _______________ since it serves as a barrier against the phagocytosis by _______________
capsule; polysaccharides; pathogenic bacteria; white blood cells
what is the function of PILE in PROKARYOTES?
allows the transfer of plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another
provides and maintains the shape of cells and serves a protective barrier
store nutrients and waste products, help increase cell size during growth, and act like lysosome of animal cells; regulates turgor pressure in the cell; digestion and storage of water
which two features are found in ANIMAL cells but NOT in PLANT cells?
centriole and lysosome
contain the cell's chlorophyll responsible for the plant's green color and the ability to absorb energy from sunlight
organelles that play a role in cell division and are made up of microtubules
vesicles that use enzymes to digest excess or worn-out cellular substances
along with CAPSULES, some prokaryotes also have _______________ like PILI and FLAGELLA
molecules of dye diffuse through the water until they reach an _______________, where the dye and water molecules are _______________ distributed. this process is an example of _______________
equilibrium; evenly; diffusion
what is the movement of food dye through water?
the dye ripples through the water and floats to bottom
if food dye is dropped into water, will its movement continue endlessly?
no it will eventually diffuse
tendency for particles of any kind to spread out evenly in an available space, moving from where they are concentrated to where they are less concentrated
_______________ is required for DIFFUSION, for it results from the _______________ of molecules
NO ENERGY; thermal motion
what happens to molecules in DIFFUSION?
molecules vibrate and move randomly
_______________ is reached when the solution is DONE BEING MIXED and there will be NO further change in ________
dynamic equilibrium; concentration
_______________, _______________, and _______________ affect the rate of DIFFUSION, for if any of these INCREASE, the rate of diffusion will also _______________.
concentration, temperature and pressure; increase
(in diffusion of more than one substance) the statement "two or more substances diffuse independently of one another" means that molecules diffuse to _______________ regardless of other molecules basically, each substance will move down its _______________.
own concentration gradient
because a cell does NOT perform _______________ when molecules diffuse across its membrane, the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane is called _______________
work; passive transport
_______________ is _______________ across a membrane with no energy investment
passive transport; diffusion
in DIFFUSION, particles move from an area of _______________ concentration to an area of _______________ concentration
in PASSIVE TRANSPORT, much of the traffic across a membrane occurs by _______________ DOWN its _______________. this is exemplified by the diffusion of OXYGEN across the plasma membrane of a cell actively utilizing OXYGEN. as long as the cell is using the oxygen, the concentration from outside to inside will be _____________
diffusion; concentration gradient; maintained
_______________ is the diffusion of WATER across a membrane
in OSMOSIS, water will ALWAYS move to the _______________
side that has more solute
in OSMOSIS, _______________ must move across cell membranes.
in OSMOSIS, water moves across the membrane from an area of _______________ concentration to an area of _______________ concentration
high water; low water
the reason our fingers wrinkle after taking a long shower or bath, or after washing dishes is because it is swollen with water but still tacked down at some points. water moves into the epidermal skin cells. our skin is hypertonic to these solutions, producing the swelling that appears as large wrinkles. oils inhibit the movement of water into our skin. thus, soapy water results in wrinkling faster than plain water because the soap removes the natural layer of oil from our skin. this process is an example of _______________
a gummy bear INCREASING its size in water is an example of _______________
in osmosis, _______________ is SMALL enough to move through the membrane but the _______________ is not.
describes the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
concentration of a solute is the same on both sides
concentration of solute is higher outside the cell
concentration of solute is lower outside the cell
if cells are put into a _______________ or _______________ solution, the results can be DANGEROUS to the cell
hypotonic or hypertonic
seawater is _______________ to many marine invertebrates and the cells of land animals are bathed in _______________ solutions
what does HYPO mean?
if there is "little" solute (hypotonic) than what is the relative concentration of water?
there is a lot of water
if a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution the water will flow from _______________ to _______________ concentration from the _______________ of the cell towards the _______________ of the cell
high to low; outside; inside
what happens to a cell if it is placed in a HYPOTONIC solution?
it will burst/lysed
what does HYPER mean?
lots of solute
if there is "lots" of solute, than what is the relative concentration of water?
there is little water
if a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water will flow from an area of _______________ to _______________ concentration from the _______________ of the cell toward the _______________ of the cell
high to low; inside; outside
what happens to a cell if it is placed in a HYPERTONIC solution?
loses water and shrivels
what does LYSED mean?
the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy
what are the three types of passive transport?
diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion
what kind of molecules can move directly through the cell membrane in diffusion?
small molecules like oxygen
what molecules diffuse across a membrane in osmosis?
unlike diffusion, facilitated diffusion is helped by _______________ to allow certain materials, or bigger particles_, to move through _______________ in the cell membrane
transport proteins, protein channels
what is one example of a molecule that moves across a membrane by facilitated diffusion?
the movement of materials through the cell membrane using cellular energy
what characteristics of a particle would prevent it from moving across a membrane?
too large and too polar/charged particles
what does PHAGOCYTOSIS mean?
what does PINOCYTOSIS mean?
what are some examples of a cell using PHAGOCYTOSIS?
unicellular protists (amoeba) and white blood cells
in PHAGOCYTOSIS, what organelle fuses with the engulfed particle?
which molecules is an example of what is brought into a mammalian cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis?
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
the process by which a variety of substances LEAVE the cell
in ENDOCYTOSIS, molecules _______________
in EXOCYTOSIS, molecules _______________
_______________, _______________, and _______________ are all examples of ENDOCYTOSIS
phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
_______________ in receptor-mediated endocytosis
specific molecules enter
_______________ is needed in passive transport and molecules move from _______________ concentration to _______________ concentration
no energy/atp; high; low
_______________ is needed in active transport and molecules move from _______________ concentration to _______________ concentration against the _______________
energy/atp; low; high; concentration gradient
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